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Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin D

The fat-soluble vitamin D’s most important role is maintaining blood levels of calcium, which it accomplishes by increasing absorption of calcium from food and reducing urinary calcium loss. Both effects keep calcium in the body and therefore spare the calcium that is stored in bones. When necessary, vitamin D transfers calcium from the bone into the bloodstream, which does not benefit bones. Although the overall effect of vitamin D on the bones is complicated, some vitamin D is necessary for healthy bones and teeth.

When "D” is used without a subscript it refers to either D2 or D3, the two primary forms used as supplements.    

References

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2. Lotfi A, Abdel-Nasser AM, Hamdy A, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in female patients with chronic low back pain. Clin Rheumatol 2007;26:1895-901.

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49. Klein GL, Chen TC, Holick MF, et al. Synthesis of vitamin D in skin after burns. Lancet 2004;363:291-2.

50. Garrel D. Burn scars: a new cause of vitamin D deficiency? Lancet 2004;363:259-60.

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56. Cadario F, Savastio S, Rizzo A, et al. Can Type 1 diabetes progression be halted? Possible role of high dose vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acids. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017;21:1604–9.

57. Gregoriou E, Mamais I, Tzanetakou I, et al. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Rev Diabet Stud 2017;14:260–8.

58. Felicio K, de Souza A, Neto J, et al. Glycemic Variability and Insulin Needs in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Supplemented with Vitamin D: A Pilot Study Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Curr Diabetes Rev 2018;14:395–403.

59. Bogdanou D, Penna-Martinez M, Filmann N, et al. T-lymphocyte and glycemic status after vitamin D treatment in type 1 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial with sequential crossover. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2017;33.

60. Wierzbicka E, Szalecki M, Pludowski P, et al. Vitamin D status, body composition and glycemic control in Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Minerva Endocrinol 2016;41:445–55.

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62. Hafez M, Hassan M, Musa N, et al. Vitamin D status in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and the role of vitamin D replacement in glycemic control. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017;30:389–94.

63. Aljabri K, Bokhari S, Khan M. Glycemic changes after vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. Ann Saudi Med 2010;30:454–8.

64. Labriji-Mestaghanmi H, Billaudel B, Garnier PE, Sutter BCJ. Vitamin D and pancreatic islet function. I. Time course for changes in insulin secretion and content during vitamin deprivation and repletion. J Endocrine Invest 1988;11:577-84.

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66. Borissova AM, Tankova T, Kirilov G, et al. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Clin Pract 2003;57:258-61.

67. Nikooyeh B, Neyestani TR, Farvid M, et al. Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93764-71.)

68. Patel P, Poretsky L, Liao E. Lack of effect of subtherapeutic vitamin D treatment on glycemic and lipid parameters in Type 2 diabetes: A pilot prospective randomized trial. J Diabetes 2010;2:36-40.

69. Jorde R, Sneve M, Torjesen P, Figenschau Y. No improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects after supplementation with vitamin D3 for 1 year. J Intern Med 2010;267:462-72

70. Lee P, Chen R. Vitamin D as an analgesic for patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathic pain. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:771-2.

71. Lee P, Chen R. Vitamin D as an analgesic for patients with type 2 diabetes and neuropathic pain. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:771-2.

72. Taheri M, Baheiraei A, Foroushani AR, et al. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency is an effective method in the elimination of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis: A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Indian J Med Res 2015;141:799–806.

73. Lasco A, Catalano A, Benvenga S. Improvement of primary dysmenorrhea caused by a single oral dose of vitamin D: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Intern Med 2012;172:366-7.

74. Gorham ED, Garland FC, Garland CF. Sunlight and breast cancer incidence in the USSR. Int J Epidemiol 1990;19:820-4.

75. Anzano MA, Smith JM, Uskokovic, et al. 1a,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-26,27-hexafluorocholecalciferol (Ro24-5531), a new deltanoid (vitamin D analogue) for prevention of breast cancer in the rat. Cancer Res 1994;54:1653-6.

76. Demdirpence E, Balaguer P, Trousse F, et al. Antiestrogenic effects of all-trans-retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in breast cancer cells occur at the estrogen response element level but through different molecular mechanisms. Cancer Res 1994;54:1458-64.

77. John EM, Schwartz GG, Dreon DM, Koo J. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:399-406.

78. Robien K, Cutler GJ, Lazovich D. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 2007;18:775-82.

79. Vink-van Wijngaarden T, Pols HA, Buurman CJ, et al. Inhibition of breast cancer cell growth by combined treatment with vitamin D3 analogues and tamoxifen. Cancer Res 1994;54:5711-7.

80. James SY, Merceer E, Brady M, et al. ERB1089, a synthetic analogue of vitamin D, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 1998;125:953-62.

81. Eisman JA, Barkla DH, Tutton PJM. Suppression of in vitro growth of human cancer solid tumor xenografts by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Res 1987;47:21-5.

82. Ravid A, Rocker D, Machlenkin A, et al. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the susceptibility of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced oxidative damage. Cancer Res 1999;59:862-7.

83. Bower M, Colston KW, Stein RC, et al. Topical calcipotriol treatment in advanced breast cancer. Lancet 1991;337:701-2.

84. Colston KW, Berger U, Coombes RC. Possible role for vitamin D in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation. Lancet 1989;I:188-91.

85. Eisman JA, Suva LJ, Martin TJ. Significance of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in primary breast cancer. Cancer Res 1986;46:5406-8.

86. Freake HC, Abeyasekera G, Iwasaki J, et al. Measurement of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in breast cancer and their relationship to biochemical and clinical indices. Cancer Res 1984;44:1677-81.

87. Baer JT, Taper LJ, Gwazdauskas FG, et al. Diet, hormonal, and metabolic factors affecting bone mineral density in adolescent amenorrheic and eumenorrheic female runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992;32:51-8.

88. Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL, Ho M. Effects of calcium supplementation on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in lactating women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:464-70.

89. Fagan KM. Pharmacologic management of athletic amenorrhea. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:327-41 [review].

90. Al Faraj S, Al Mutairi K. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Spine 2003;28:177-9.

91. Lotfi A, Abdel-Nasser AM, Hamdy A, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in female patients with chronic low back pain. Clin Rheumatol 2007;26:1895-901.

92. De Torrente de la Jara G, Pecoud A, Favrat B. Musculoskeletal pain in female asylum seekers and hypovitaminosis D3. BMJ 2004;329:156-7.

93. Leichtmann GA, Bengoa JM, Bolt MJG, Sitrin MD. Intestinal absorption of cholecalciferol and 25-hydrocycholecalciferol in patients with both Crohn's disease and intestinal resection. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:548-52.

94. Harris AD, Brown R, Heatley RV, et al. Vitamin D status in Crohn's disease: association with nutrition and disease activity. Gut 1985;26:1197-203.

95. Driscoll RH Jr, Meredith SC, Sitrin M, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and bone disease in patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1982;83:1252-8.

96. Vogelsang H, Ferenci P, Resch H, et al. Prevention of bone mineral loss in patients with Crohn's disease by long-term oral vitamin D supplementation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1995;7:609-14.

97. Jorgensen SP, Agnholt J, Glerup H, et al. Clinical trial: vitamin D3 treatment in Crohn's disease - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;32:377-83.

98. Yang L, Weaver V, Smith JP, et al. Therapeutic effect of vitamin D supplementation in a pilot study of Crohn's patients. Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2013;4:e33.

99. Connon JJ. Celiac disease. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994, 1062.

100. Crofton RW, Glover SC, Ewen SWB, et al. Zinc absorption in celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis: a test of small intestinal function. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:706-12.

101. Solomons NW, Rosenberg IH, Sandstead HH. Zinc nutrition in celiac sprue. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29:371-5.

102. Rude RK, Olerich M. Magnesium deficiency: possible role in osteoporosis associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:453-61.

103. Basha B, Rao S, Han ZH, Parfitt, AM. Osteomalacia due to vitamin D depletion: neglected consequence of intestinal malabsorption. Am J Med 2000;108(4):296-300.

104. Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1255-60.

105. Kerley CP, Hutchinson K, Cormican L, et al. Vitamin D3 for uncontrolled childhood asthma: A pilot study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2016;27:404–12.

106. Castro M, King TS, Kunselman SJ, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014;311:2083–91.

107. Lasco A, Catalano A, Benvenga S. Improvement of primary dysmenorrhea caused by a single oral dose of vitamin D: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Intern Med 2012;172:366-7.

108. Baer JT, Taper LJ, Gwazdauskas FG, et al. Diet, hormonal, and metabolic factors affecting bone mineral density in adolescent amenorrheic and eumenorrheic female runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992;32:51-8.

109. Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL, Ho M. Effects of calcium supplementation on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in lactating women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:464-70.

110. Fagan KM. Pharmacologic management of athletic amenorrhea. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:327-41 [review].

111. Crescioli C, Morelli A, Adorini L, et al. Human bladder as a novel target for vitamin D receptor ligands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:962-72.

112. Schröder A, Colli E, Maggi M, Andersson KE. Effects of vitamin D(3) analogue in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction. BJU Int 2006;98:637-42.

113. 3] Badalian SS, Rosenbaum PF. Vitamin D and pelvic floor disorders in women: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Obstet Gynecol 2010;115:795-803.

114. Studzinski GP, Moore DC. Sunlight--can it prevent as well as cause cancer? Cancer Res 1995;55:4014-22 [review].

115. John EM, Koo J, Schwartz GG. Sun exposure and prostate cancer risk: evidence for a protective effect of early-life exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1283-6.

116. Wali S, Shukr A, Boudal A, et al. The effect of vitamin D supplements on the severity of restless legs syndrome. Sleep Breath 2015;19:579–83.

117. Saad K, Abdel-Rahman AA, Elserogy YM, et al. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2016 Nov 21 [Epub ahead of print].

118. Gaby, AR. Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

119. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 1997;337:670-6.

120. Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and vitamin D nutritional needs of elderly women. J Nutr 1996;126(4 Suppl):1165-7S.

121. Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1637-42.

122. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, et al. Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:1140-5.

123. Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med 2000;247:260-8.

124. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, et al. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:18-28.

125. Moreira-Pfrimer LDF, Pedrosa MAC, Teixeira L, Lazaretti-Castro M. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency increases lower limb muscle strength in institutionalized older people independently of regular physical activity: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 2009;54:291-300.

126. Agarwal KS, Mughal MZ, Upadhyay P, et al. The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status of infants and toddlers in Delhi, India. Arch Dis Child 2002;87:111-3.

127. Manicourt DH, Devogelaer JP. Urban tropospheric ozone increases the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian postmenopausal women with outdoor activities during summer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:3893-9.

128. Kyriakidou-Himonas M, Aloia JF, Yeh JK. Vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal black women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3988-90.

129. Basha B, Rao S, Han ZH, Parfitt, AM. Osteomalacia due to vitamin D depletion: neglected consequence of intestinal malabsorption. Am J Med 2000;108(4):296-300.

130. Yamashita H, Noguchi S, Takatsu K, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Japanese female patients with Graves' disease. Endocr J 2001;48(6):63-9.

131. Silverberg SL, Shane E, Dempster DW, Bilezikian JP. The effects of vitamin D insufficiency in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Med 1999; 107:561-7.

132. Van Veldhuizen PJ, Taylor SA, Williamson S, Drees BM. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in patients with metastatic prostate cancer may improve bone pain and muscle strength. J Urol 2000;163:187-90.

133. Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:439-43.

134. Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med 1998;338:777-83.

135. Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B, Perrone GA. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D responses of younger and older men to three weeks of supplementation with 1800 IU/day of vitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:470-4.

136. Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:842-56.

137. Heikkinen AM, Tuppurainen MT, Komulainen M, et al. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation may have adverse effects on serum lipids during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 1997;137:495-502.

138. Scragg R, Khaw KT, Murphy S. Effect of winter oral vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:640-6.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.