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Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is the master vitamin for processing amino acids—the building blocks of all proteins and some hormones. Vitamin B6 helps to make and take apart many amino acids and is also needed to make the hormones, serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine.

References

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21. Carrero JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, Salmeron LM, et al. Daily supplementation with (n-3) PUFAs, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E increases pain-free walking distance and improves risk factors in men with peripheral vascular disease. J Nutr2005;135:1393-9.

22. Stampfer MJ, Malinow R, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. JAMA 1992;268:877-81.

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28. Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJH, ven der Merwe A, et al. Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. J Nutr 1994;124:1927-33.

29. Manson JB, Miller JW. The effects of vitamin B12, B6, and folate on blood homocysteine levels. Ann NY Acad Sci 1992;669:197-204 [review].

30. Hackam DG, Peterson JC, Spence JD. What level of plasma homocyst(e)ine should be treated? Am J Hypertens 2000;13:105-10.

31. Till U, Rohl P, Jentsch A, et al. Decrease of carotid intima-media thickness in patients at risk to cerebral ischemia after supplementation with folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12. Atherosclerosis2005;181:131-5.

32. Franken DG, Boers GHJ, Blom HJ, et al. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vascular disease patients. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14:465-70.

33. Ubbink JB, van der Merwe A, Vermaak WJH, Delport R. Hyperhomocysteinemia and the response to vitamin supplementation. Clin Investig 1993;71:993-8.

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35. Ridker PM, Manson JE, Buring JE, et al. Homocysteine and risk of cardiovascular disease among postmenopausal women. JAMA 1999;281:1817-21.

36. Bots ML, Launer LJ, Lindemans J, et al. Homocysteine and short-term risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:38-44.

37. Stampfer MJ, Malinow R, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. JAMA 1992;268:877-81.

38. Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, McGovern PG, et al. Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins. Circulation 1998;98:204-10.

39. Kuller LH, Evans RW. Homocysteine, vitamins, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1998;98:196-9 [editorial/review].

40. Nallamothu BK, Fendrick AM, Rubenfire M, et al. Potential clinical and economic effects of homocyst(e)ine lowering. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3406-12.

41. Landgren F, Israelsson B, Lindgren A, et al. Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Intern Med 1995;237:381-8.

42. Ward M, McNulty H, McPartlin J, et al. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. QJM 1997;90:519-24.

43. Lobo A, Naso A, Arheart K, et al. Reduction of homocysteine levels in coronary artery disease by low-dose folic acid combined with vitamins B6 and B12. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:821-5.

44. Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, Porkkala-Sarataho E, et al. Low serum folate concentrations are associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:424-8.

45. Lalouschek W, Aull S, Serles W, et al. Genetic and nongenetic factors influencing plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and in healthy control subjects. J Lab Clin Med 1999;133:575-82.

46. Ridker PM, Manson JE, Buring JE, et al. Homocysteine and risk of cardiovascular disease among postmenopausal women. JAMA 1999;281:1817-21.

47. Perry IJ. Homocysteine, hypertension and stroke. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:289-93 [review].

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49. Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJH, ven der Merwe A, et al. Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in humans. J Nutr 1994;124:1927-33.

50. Manson JB, Miller JW. The effects of vitamin B12, B6, and folate on blood homocysteine levels. Ann NY Acad Sci 1992;669:197-204 [review].

51. Wang X, Qin X, Demirtas H, et al. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007;369:1876-82.

52. Sahakian V, Rouse D, Sipes S, et al. Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:33-6.

53. Vutyavanich T, Wongtra-ngan S, Ruangsri R. Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:881-4.

54. Hallert C, Astrom J, Walan A. Reversal of psychopathology in adult celiac disease with the aid of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Scand J Gastroenterol 1983;18:299-304.

55. Hallert C, Svensson M, Tholstrup J, Hultberg B. Clinical trial: B vitamins improve health in patients with coeliac disease living on a gluten-free diet. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009;29:811-6.

56. Hallert C, Astrom J, Walan A. Reversal of psychopathology in adult celiac disease with the aid of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Scand J Gastroenterol 1983;18:299-304.

57. Barr W. Pyridoxine supplements in the premenstrual syndrome. Practitioner 1984;228:425-7.

58. Gunn ADG. Vitamin B6 and the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1985;(Suppl 27):213-24 [review].

59. Kleijnen J, Riet GT, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome—a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990;97:847-52.

60. Williams MJ, Harris RI, Deand BC. Controlled trial of pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Int Med Res 1985;13:174-9.

61. Brush MG, Perry M. Pyridoxine and the premenstrual syndrome. Lancet 1985;i:1399 [letter].

62. Hagen I, Nesheim B-I, Tuntland T. No effect of vitamin B6 against premenstrual tension. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1985;64:667-70.

63. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O'Brien PM. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ 1999;318:1375-81.

64. Smallwood J, Ah-Kye D, Taylor I. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of pre-menstrual mastalgia. Br J Clin Pract 1986;40:532-3.

65. Sutterlin M, Bussen S, Ruppert D, Steck T. Serum levels of folate and cobalamin in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2292-6.

66. Wouters MG, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 1993;60:820-5.

67. Steegers-Theunissen RP, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and recurrent spontaneous abortion or abruptio placentae. Lancet 1992;339:1122-3 [letter].

68. Quere I, Bellet H, Hoffet M, et al. A woman with five consecutive fetal deaths: case report and retrospective analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence in 100 consecutive women with recurrent miscarriages. Fertil Steril 1998;69:152-4.

69. Quere I, Mercier E, Bellet H, et al. Vitamin supplementation and pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and hyperhomocysteinemia. Fertil Steril 2001;75:823-5.

70. McIntosh EN. Treatment of women with the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with pyridoxine (vitamin B6). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976;42:1192-5.

71. Kidd GS, Dimond R, Kark JA, et al. The effects of pyridoxine on pituitary hormone secretion in amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;54:872-5.

72. Spiegel AM, Rosen SW, Weintraub BD, Marynick SP. Effect of intravenous pyridoxine on plasma prolactin in hyperprolactinemic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1978;46:686-8.

73. Lehtovirta P, Ranta T, Seppala M. Pyridoxine treatment of galactorrhoea-amenorrhoea syndromes. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1978;87:682-6.

74. Tolis G, Laliberte R, Guyda H, Naftolin F. Ineffectiveness of pyridoxine (B6) to alter secretion of growth hormone and prolactin and absence of therapeutic effects on galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;44:1197-9.

75. Goodenow TJ, Malarkey WB. Ineffectiveness of pyridoxine in evaluation and treatment of the hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979;133:161-4.

76. Thibault L, Roberge AG. The nutritional status of subjects with anorexia nervosa. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1987;57:447-52.

77. Abou-Saleh MT, Coppen A. The biology of folate in depression: implications for nutritional hypotheses of the psychoses. J Psychiatr Res 1986;20:91-101 [review].

78. Beaumont PJ, Chambers TL, Rouse L, Abraham SF. The diet composition and nutritional knowledge of patients with anorexia nervosa. J Hum Nutr 1981;35:265-73.

79. Rock CL, Vasantharajan S. Vitamin status of eating disorder patients: relationship to clinical indices and effect of treatment. Int J Eat Disord 1995;18:257-62.

80. Langan SM, Farrell PM. Vitamin E, vitamin A and essential fatty acid status of patients hospitalized for anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:1054-60.

81. Kaye WH, Weltzin TE. Serotonin activity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: relationship to the modulation of feeding and mood. J Clin Psychiatry 1991;52 Suppl:41-8 [review].

82. Smith KA, Fairburn CG, Cowen PJ. Symptomatic relapse in bulimia nervosa following acute tryptophan depletion. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:171-6.

83. Weltzin TE, Fernstrom MH, Fernstrom JD, et al. Acute tryptophan depletion and increased food intake and irritability in bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:1668-71.

84. Oldman AD, Walsh AES, Salkovskis P, et al. Biochemical and behavioural effects of acute tryptophan depletion in abstinent bulimic subjects: a pilot study. Psychol Med 1995;25:995-1001.

85. Anderson IM, Parry-Billings M, Newsholme EA, et al. Dieting reduces plasma tryptophan and alters brain 5-HT function in women. Psychol Med 1990;20:785-91.

86. Mira M, Abraham S. L-tryptophan as an adjunct to treatment of bulimia nervosa. Lancet 1989;ii:1162-3 [letter].

87. Krahn D, Mitchell J. Use of L-tryptophan in treating bulimia. Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:1130 [letter].

88. Brewerton TD, Murphy DL, Jimerson DC. Testmeal responses following m-chlorophenylpiperazine and L-tryptophan in bulimics and controls. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994;11:63-71.

89. Barr W. Pyridoxine supplements in the premenstrual syndrome. Practitioner 1984;228:425-7.

90. Gunn ADG. Vitamin B6 and the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1985;(Suppl 27):213-24 [review].

91. Kleijnen J, Riet GT, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome—a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990;97:847-52.

92. Williams MJ, Harris RI, Deand BC. Controlled trial of pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Int Med Res 1985;13:174-9.

93. Brush MG, Perry M. Pyridoxine and the premenstrual syndrome. Lancet 1985;i:1399 [letter].

94. Hagen I, Nesheim B-I, Tuntland T. No effect of vitamin B6 against premenstrual tension. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1985;64:667-70.

95. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O'Brien PM. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ 1999;318:1375-81.

96. Smallwood J, Ah-Kye D, Taylor I. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of pre-menstrual mastalgia. Br J Clin Pract 1986;40:532-3.

97. McIntosh EN. Treatment of women with the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with pyridoxine (vitamin B6). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976;42:1192-5.

98. Kidd GS, Dimond R, Kark JA, et al. The effects of pyridoxine on pituitary hormone secretion in amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;54:872-5.

99. Spiegel AM, Rosen SW, Weintraub BD, Marynick SP. Effect of intravenous pyridoxine on plasma prolactin in hyperprolactinemic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1978;46:686-8.

100. Lehtovirta P, Ranta T, Seppala M. Pyridoxine treatment of galactorrhoea-amenorrhoea syndromes. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1978;87:682-6.

101. Tolis G, Laliberte R, Guyda H, Naftolin F. Ineffectiveness of pyridoxine (B6) to alter secretion of growth hormone and prolactin and absence of therapeutic effects on galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;44:1197-9.

102. Goodenow TJ, Malarkey WB. Ineffectiveness of pyridoxine in evaluation and treatment of the hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979;133:161-4.

103. Adams PW, Wynn V, Rose DP, et al. Effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) upon depression associated with oral contraception. Lancet 1973;I:897-904.

104. Russ CS, Hendricks TA, Chrisley BM, et al. Vitamin B-6 status of depressed and obsessive-compulsive patients. Nutr Rep Int 1983;27:867-73.

105. Gunn ADG. Vitamin B6 and the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1985;(Suppl 27):213-24 [review].

106. Kleijnen J, Riet GT, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome—a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990;97:847-52.

107. Adams PW, Wynn V, Rose DP, et al. Effect of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) upon depression associated with oral contraception. Lancet 1973;I:897-904.

108. Russ CS, Hendricks TA, Chrisley BM, et al. Vitamin B-6 status of depressed and obsessive-compulsive patients. Nutr Rep Int 1983;27:867-73.

109. Gunn ADG. Vitamin B6 and the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1985;(Suppl 27):213-24 [review].

110. Kleijnen J, Riet GT, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome—a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990;97:847-52.

111. Levine J, Stahl Z, Sela BA, et al. Homocysteine-reducing strategies improve symptoms in chronic schizophrenic patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Biol Psychiatry 2006;60:265-9.

112. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women: the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:335-41.

113. Madigan SM, Tracey F, McNulty H, et al. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(2):389-95.

114. Tolonen M, Schrijver J, Westermarck T, et al. Vitamin B6 status of Finnish elderly. Comparison with Dutch younger adults and elderly. The effect of supplementation. Int J Vitam Res 1988;58(1):73-7.

115. Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, et al. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;109(4):489-96.

116. Kang JH, Cook N, Manson J, Buring JE, Albert CM, Grodstein F. A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1602-10.)

117. Smith AD, Smith SM, de Jager CA, et al. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 2010;5(9):e12244.

118. Imagawa M, Naruse S, Tsuji S, et al. Coenzyme Q10, iron, and vitamin B6 in genetically-confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1992;340:671 [letter].

119. Schwieger G, Karl H, Schonhaber E. Relapse prevention of painful vertebral syndromes in follow-up treatment with a combination of vitamins B1, B6, and B12. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990;585:54-62.

120. Kuhlwein A, Meyer HJ, Koehler CO. Reduced diclofenac administration by B vitamins: results of a randomized double-blind study with reduced daily doses of diclofenac (75 mg diclofenac versus 75 mg diclofenac plus B vitamins) in acute lumbar vertebral syndromes. Klin Wochenschr 1990;68:107-15 [in German].

121. Bruggemann G, Koehler CO, Koch EM. Results of a double-blind study of diclofenac + vitamin B1, B6, B12 versus diclofenac in patients with acute pain of the lumbar vertebrae. A multicenter study. Klin Wochenschr 1990;68:116-20 [in German].

122. Vetter G, Bruggemann G, Lettko M, et al. Shortening diclofenac therapy by B vitamins. Results of a randomized double-blind study, diclofenac 50 mg versus diclofenac 50 mg plus B vitamins, in painful spinal diseases with degenerative changes. Z Rheumatol 1988;47:351-62 [in German].

123. Fuhr JF, Farrow A, Nelson HS. Vitamin B6 levels in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Arch Surg 1989;124:1329-30.

124. Keniston RC, Nathan PA, Leklem JE, Lockwood RS. Vitamin B6, vitamin C, and carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Environ Med 1997;39:949-59.

125. Franzblau A, Rock CL, Werner RA, et al. The relationship of vitamin B6 status to median nerve function and carpal tunnel syndrome among active industrial workers. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38:485-91.

126. Smith GP, Rudge PJ, Peters TJ. Biochemical studies of pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate status and therapeutic trial of pyridoxine in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Ann Neurol 1984;15:104-7.

127. Ellis JM, Azuma J, Watanbe T, Folkers K. Survey and new data on treatment with pyridoxine of patients having a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel and other defects. Res Comm Chem Path Pharm 1977;17(1):165-77.

128. Ellis JM. Vitamin B6 deficiency in patients with a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel defect. Biochemical and clinical response to therapy with pyridoxine. Res Comm Chem Path Pharm 1976;13(4):743-57.

129. D'Souza M. Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical or neurophysiological diagnosis. Lancet 1985;i:1104-5.

130. Driskell JA, Wesley RL, Hess IE. Effectiveness of pyridoxine hydrochloride treatment on carpal tunnel syndrome patients. Nutr Rep Internat 1986;34(4):1031-9.

131. Ellis JM. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with vitamin B6. Southern Med J 1987;80(7):882-4.

132. Browning DM. Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical or neurophysiological diagnosis? Lancet 1985;i:1104-5 [letter].

133. Amadio PC. Pyridoxine as an adjunct in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surg 1985;10A(2):237-41.

134. Stransky M, Rubin A, Lava NS, Lazaro RP. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with vitamin B6: a double-blind study. Southern Med J 1989;82(7):841-2.

135. Bernstein AL, Dinesen JS. Brief communication: effect of pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 on carpal tunnel syndrome, electronencephalographic results, and pain. J Am Coll Nutri 1993;12:73-6.

136. Gaby AR. Literature review & commentary. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients.1990;Jun:338-9.

137. Parry G, Bredesen DE. Sensory neuropath with low-dose pyridoxine. Neurology 1985;35:1466-8.

138. Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A, et al. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. N Engl J Med 1983;309(8):445-8.

139. Madigan SM, Tracey F, McNulty H, et al. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(2):389-95.

140. Tolonen M, Schrijver J, Westermarck T, et al. Vitamin B6 status of Finnish elderly. Comparison with Dutch younger adults and elderly. The effect of supplementation. Int J Vitam Res 1988;58(1):73-7.

141. Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, et al. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;109(4):489-96.

142. Kang JH, Cook N, Manson J, Buring JE, Albert CM, Grodstein F. A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1602-10.)

143. Smith AD, Smith SM, de Jager CA, et al. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 2010;5(9):e12244.

144. Hawkins DR, Bortin AW, Runyon RP. Orthomolecular psychiatry: niacin and megavitamin therapy. Psychosomatics 1970;11:517-21 [review].

145. Autry JH. Workshop on orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia: a report. Schizophr Bull 1975:94-103.

146. Petrie WM, Ban TA. Vitamins in psychiatry. Do they have a role? Drugs 1985;30:58-65 [review].

147. Hoffer A. Megavitamin B-3 therapy for schizophrenia. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1971;16:499-504.

148. Wittenborn JR, Weber ES, Brown M. Niacin in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;28:308-15.

149. Newbold HL, Mosher LR. Niacin and the schizophrenic patient. Am J Psychiatry 1970;127:535-6.

150. Petrie WM, Ban TA, Ananth JV. The use of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 1981;16:245-50.

151. Ananth JV, Ban TA, Lehmann HE. Potentiation of therapeutic effects of nicotinic acid by pyridoxine in chronic schizophrenics. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1973;18:377-83.

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153. Sandyk R, Pardeshi R. Pyridoxine improves drug-induced parkinsonism and psychosis in a schizophrenic patient. Int J Neurosci 1990;52:225-32.

154. Yamauchi M. Effects of L-dopa and vitamin B6 on electroencephalograms of schizophrenic patients: a preliminary report. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 1976;30:121-51.

155. Bucci L. Pyridoxine and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1973;122:240 [letter].

156. Manowitz P, Gilmour DG, Racevskis J. Low plasma tryptophan levels in recently hospitalized schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 1973;6:109-18.

157. Payne IR, Walsh EM, Whittenburg EJ. Relationship of dietary tryptophan and niacin to tryptophan metabolism in schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics. Am J Clin Nutr 1974;27:565-71.

158. Gilka L. Schizophrenia, a disorder of tryptophan metabolism. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1975;258:1-83.

159. Bowers MB Jr. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoles and behavior after L-tryptophan and pyridoxine administration to psychiatric patients. Neuropharmacology 1970;9:599-604.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.