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Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin B3

The body uses the water-soluble vitamin B3 in the process of releasing energy from carbohydrates. It is needed to form fat from carbohydrates and to process alcohol. The niacin form of vitamin B3 also regulates cholesterol, though niacinamide does not.

References

1. Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:185-93 [review].

2. Guyton JR, Blazing MA, Hagar J, et al. Extended-release niacin vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Niaspan-Gemfibrozil Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1177-84.

3. McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Harris S, Chinchili VM. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained—vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. JAMA 1994;271:672-7.

4. Knopp RH, Ginsberg J, Albers JJ, et al. Contrasting effects of unmodified and time-release forms of niacin on lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic subjects: clues to mechanism of action of niacin. Metabolism 1985;34:642-50.

5. Gray DR, Morgan T, Chretien SD, Kashyap ML. Efficacy and safety of controlled-release niacin in dyslipoproteinemic veterans. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:252-8.

6. Rader JI, Calvert RJ, Hathcock JN. Hepatic toxicity of unmodified and time-release preparations of niacin. Am J Med 1992;92:77-81 [Review].

7. Knopp RH. Niacin and hepatic failure. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:769 [letter].

8. Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:1100-5.

9. Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:183-93 [review].

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35. Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, et al. A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (The IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:181–5.

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37. Linder K, Willmann C, Kantartzis K, et al. Dietary Niacin Intake Predicts the Decrease of Liver Fat Content During a Lifestyle Intervention. Sci Rep 2019;9:1303.

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39. Fangmann D, Theismann E, Turk K, et al. Targeted Microbiome Intervention by Microencapsulated Delayed-Release Niacin Beneficially Affects Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. Diabetes Care 2018;41:398–405.

40. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

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44. Hawkins DR, Bortin AW, Runyon RP. Orthomolecular psychiatry: niacin and megavitamin therapy. Psychosomatics 1970;11:517-21 [review].

45. Autry JH. Workshop on orthomolecular treatment of schizophrenia: a report. Schizophr Bull 1975:94-103.

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48. Wittenborn JR, Weber ES, Brown M. Niacin in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;28:308-15.

49. Newbold HL, Mosher LR. Niacin and the schizophrenic patient. Am J Psychiatry 1970;127:535-6.

50. Petrie WM, Ban TA, Ananth JV. The use of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int Pharmacopsychiatry 1981;16:245-50.

51. Ananth JV, Ban TA, Lehmann HE. Potentiation of therapeutic effects of nicotinic acid by pyridoxine in chronic schizophrenics. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1973;18:377-83.

52. Vaughan K, McConaghy N. Megavitamin and dietary treatment in schizophrenia: a randomised, controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1999;33:84-8.

53. Sandyk R, Pardeshi R. Pyridoxine improves drug-induced parkinsonism and psychosis in a schizophrenic patient. Int J Neurosci 1990;52:225-32.

54. Yamauchi M. Effects of L-dopa and vitamin B6 on electroencephalograms of schizophrenic patients: a preliminary report. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 1976;30:121-51.

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56. Mohler H, Polc P, Cumin R, et al. Niacinamide is a brain constituent with benzodiazepine-like actions. Nature 1979;278:563-5.

57. Vescovi PP, et al. Nicotinic acid effectiveness in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal. Curr Ther Res 1987;41:1017.

58. Mohler H, Polc P, Cumin R, et al. Niacinamide is a brain constituent with benzodiazepine-like actions. Nature 1979;278:563-5.

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60. Shakir KMM, Kroll S, Aprill BS, et al. Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state. Mayo Clin Proc 1995;70:556-8.

61. O'Brien T, Silverberg JD, Nguyen TT. Nicotinic acid-induced toxicity associated with cytopenia and decreased levels of thyroxine-binding globulin. Mayo Clin Proc 1992;67:465-8.

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63. Knekt P, Heliovaara M, Rissanen A, et al. Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract. BMJ 1992;305:1392-4.

64. Bhat KS. Nutritional status of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine in cataract patients. Nutr Rep Internat 1987;36:685-92.

65. Prchal JT, Conrad ME, Skalka HW. Association of presenile cataracts with heterozygosity for galactosaemic states and with riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1978; 1:12-3.

66. Sperduto RD, Hu TS, Milton RC, et al. The Linxian cataract studies. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1246-53.

67. Murray MF. Niacin as a potential AIDS preventive factor. Med Hypotheses 1999;53:375-9.

68. Murray MF, Srinivasan A. Nicotinamide inhibits HIV-1 in both acute and chronic in vitro infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;210:954-9.

69. Tang AM, Graham NMH, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1244-56.

70. Neumann R, Rappold E, Pohl-Markl H. Treatment of polymorphous light eruption with nicotinamide: a pilot study. Br J Dermatol 1986;115:77-80.

71. Gaby, AR. Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

72. Goldie C, Taylor AJ, Nguyen P, et al. Niacin therapy and the risk of new-onset diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Heart 2016;102:198–203.

73. McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Harris S, Chinchili VM. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained—vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. JAMA 1994;271:672-7.

74. Knopp RH, Ginsberg J, Albers JJ, et al. Contrasting effects of unmodified and time-release forms of niacin on lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic subjects: clues to mechanism of action of niacin. Metabolism 1985;34:642-50.

75. Gray DR, Morgan T, Chretien SD, Kashyap ML. Efficacy and safety of controlled-release niacin in dyslipoproteinemic veterans. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:252-8.

76. Rader JI, Calvert RJ, Hathcock JN. Hepatic toxicity of unmodified and time-release preparations of niacin. Am J Med 1992;92:77-81 [Review].

77. Knopp RH. Niacin and hepatic failure. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:769 [letter].

78. Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:1100-5.

79. Garg R, Malinow M, Pettinger M, Upson B, Hunninghake D. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. Am Heart J 1999;138:1082-7.

80. Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:185-93 [review].

81. Guyton JR. Effect of niacin on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 1998;82(12A):18U-23U [review].

82. Welsh AL, Ede M. Inositol hexanicotinate for improved nicotinic acid therapy. Int Record Med 1961;174:9-15.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.