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Nutritional Supplement

L-Carnitine

L-carnitine is made in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine, and is needed to release energy from fat. It transports fatty acids into mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells. In infancy, and in situations of high energy needs, such as pregnancy and breast-feeding, the need for L-carnitine can exceed production by the body. Therefore, L-carnitine is considered a "conditionally essential" nutrient.1

References

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2. Cherchi A, Lai C, Angelino F, et al. Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1985;23:569-72.

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21. Brevetti G, Perna S, Sabba C, et al. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on quality of life in intermittent claudication. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:777-80.

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28. Rossi CS, Siliprandi N. Effect of carnitine on serum HDL-cholesterol: report of two cases. Johns Hopkins Med J 1982;150:51-4.

29. Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, Boem A. Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1992;18:355-65.

30. Trivellato M, de Palo E, Gatti R, et al. Carnitine deficiency as the possible etiology of idiopathic mitral valve prolapse: case study with speculative annotation. Texas Heart Inst J 1984;11:370-6.

31. Paulson DJ. Carnitine deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy. Mol Cell Biochem 1998;180(1-2):33-41.

32. Winter S, Jue K, Prochazka J, et al. The role of L-carnitine in pediatric cardiomyopathy. J Child Neurol 1995;10 Suppl 2:S45-51.

33. Kothari SS, Sharma M. L-carnitine in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Indian Heart J 1998;50:59-61.

34. Gasser P, Martina B, Dubler B. Reaction of capillary blood cell velocity in nailfold capillaries to L-carnitine in patients with vasospastic disease. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1997;23:39-43.

35. Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology2004;63:641-6.

36. Costa M, Canale D, Filicori M, et al. L-carnitine in idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a multicenter study. Andrologia 1994;26:155-9.

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38. Moncada ML, Vicari E, Cimino C, et al. Effect of acetylcarnitine treatment in oligoasthenospermic patients. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 1992;23:221-4.

39. Adeva-Andany M, Calvo-Castro I, Fernandez-Fernandez C, et al. Significance of l-carnitine for human health. IUBMB Life 2017;69:578–94.

40. Bene J, Hadzsiev K, Melegh B. Role of carnitine and its derivatives in the development and management of type 2 diabetes. Nutr Diabetes 2018;8:8.

41. Ramazani M, Qujeq D, Moazezi Z. Assessing the Levels of L-Carnitine and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Adults with Newly Diagnosed and Long-Standing Type 2 Diabetes. Can J Diabetes 2019;43:46-50.e41.

42. Poorabbas A, Fallah F, Bagdadchi J, et al. Determination of free L-carnitine levels in type II diabetic women with and without complications. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:892–5.

43. Ringseis R, Keller J, Eder K. Role of carnitine in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity: evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies with carnitine supplementation and carnitine deficiency. Eur J Nutr 2012;51:1–18.

44. Vidal-Casariego A, Burgos-Pelaez R, Martinez-Faedo C, et al. Metabolic effects of L-carnitine on type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2013;121:234–8.

45. El-Sheikh H, El-Haggar S, Elbedewy T. Comparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019;13:167–73.

46. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Ferrari I, et al. Orlistat and L-carnitine compared to orlistat alone on insulin resistance in obese diabetic patients. Endocr J 2010;57:777–86.

47. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Salvadeo S, et al. Sibutramine and L-carnitine compared to sibutramine alone on insulin resistance in diabetic patients. Intern Med 2010;49:1717–25.

48. Galvano F, Li Volti G, Malaguarnera M, et al. Effects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009;10:1875–82.

49. Molfino A, Cascino A, Conte C, et al. Caloric restriction and L-carnitine administration improves insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose metabolism. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2010;34:295–9.

50. Imbe A, Tanimoto K, Inaba Y, et al. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on the quality of life in diabetic patients with muscle cramps. Endocr J 2018;65:521–6.

51. Sima A. Acetyl-L-carnitine in diabetic polyneuropathy: experimental and clinical data. CNS Drugs 2007;21:13–23.

52. Evans J, Jacobs T, Evans E. Role of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Ann Pharmacother 2008;42:1686–91.

53. Li S, Chen X, Li Q, et al. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine and methylcobalamin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J Diabetes Investig 2016;7:777–85.

54. Van Oudheusden LJ, Scholte HR. Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002;67:33-8.

55. Geier DA, Kern JK, Davis G, et al. A prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial of levocarnitine to treat autism spectrum disorders. Med Sci Monit 2011;17:PI15-23.

56. Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology2004;63:641-6.

57. Kuratsune H, Yamaguti K, Takahashi M, et al. Acylcarnitine deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18(1 suppl):S62-7.

58. Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Amantadine and L-carnitine treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology 1997;35:16-23.

59. Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Madeddu C, et al. Efficacy of L-carnitine administration on fatigue, nutritional status, oxidative stress, and related quality of life in 12 advanced cancer patients undergoing anticancer therapy. Nutrition2006;22:136-45.

60. Cruciani RA, Dvorkin E, Homel P, et al. Safety, tolerability and symptom outcomes associated with L-carnitine supplementation in patients with cancer, fatigue, and carnitine deficiency: a phase I/II study. J Pain Symptom Manage 2006;32:551-9.

61. Cerretelli P, Marconi C. L-carnitine supplementation in humans. The effects on physical performance. Int J Sports Med 1990;11:1-14 [review].

62. Heinonen OJ. Carnitine and physical exercise. Sports Med 1996;22:109-32 [review].

63. Bucci LR. Nutrients as ergogenic aids for sports and exercise. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993, 47-52 [review].

64. Colombani P, Wenk C, Kunz I, et al. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double blind crossover field study. Eur J Appl Physiol 1996;73:434–9.

65. Decombaz J, Deriaz O, Acheson K, et al. Effect of L-carnitine on submaximal exercise metabolism after depletion of muscle glycogen. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25:733-40.

66. Trappe SW, Costill DL, Goodpaster B, et al. The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on performance during interval swimming. Int J Sports Med 1994;15:181-5.

67. Green RE, Levine AM, Gunning MJ. The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on lean body mass in male amateur body builders. J Am Dietet Assoc 1997;(suppl):A-72 [abstract].

68. He Z-Q, Phone ZS. Body weight reductionin adolescents by a combination of measures including using L-carnitine. Acta NutrimentaSinica 1997;19.

69. VillaniRG, Gannon J, Self M, Rich PA. L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobictraining does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women. Int J SportNutrExerc Metab 2000;10:199-207.

70. Al-Biltagi M, Isa M, Bediwy AS, et al. L-Carnitine improves the asthma control in children with moderate persistent asthma. J Allergy (Cairo) 2012;2012:509730.

71. Giamberardino MA, Dragani L, Valente R, et al. Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort. Int J Sports Med 1996;17:320-4.

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73. Kobayashi A, Masumura Y, Yamazaki N. L-carnitine treatment for congestive heart failure—experimental and clinical study. Jpn Circ J 1992;56:86-94.

74. Dipalma JR. Carnitine deficiency. Am Fam Physician 1988;38:243-51.

75. Kendler BS. Carnitine: an overview of its role in preventive medicine. Prev Med 1986;15:373-90.

76. Tamamogullari N, Silig Y, Icagasioglu S, Atalay A. Carnitine deficiency in diabetes mellitus complications. J Diabetes Complications 1999;13:251-3.

77. Del Favero A. Carnitine and gangliosides. Lancet 1988;2:337 [letter].

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.