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Nutritional Supplement

Flavonoids

Flavonoids are a class of water-soluble plant pigments. Flavonoids are broken down into categories, though the issue of how to divide them is not universally agreed upon. One system breaks flavonoids into isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavans, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones.1 Some of the best-known flavonoids, such as genistein in soy, and quercetin in onions, can be considered subcategories of categories. Although they are all structurally related, their functions are different. Flavonoids also include hesperidin, rutin, citrus flavonoids, and a variety of other supplements.

References

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11. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar N, Buzina R, Bacic M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:333-41.

12. Woolfe SN, Kenney EB, Hume WR, Carranza FA Jr. Relationship of ascorbic acid levels of blood and gingival tissue with response to periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:159-65.

13. Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, et al. The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1986;57:472-9.

14. El-Ashiry GM, Ringsdorf WM, Cheraskin E. Local and systemic influences in periodontal disease. II. Effect of prophylaxis and natural versus synthetic vitamin C upon gingivitis. J Periodontol 1964;35:250-9.

15. Carvel I, Halperin V. Therapeutic effect of water soluble bioflavonoids in gingival inflammatory conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1961;14:847-55.

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28. Rehn D, Brunnauer H, Diebschlag W, Lehmacher W. Investigation of the therapeutic equivalence of different galenical preparations of O-(s-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides following multiple dose per oral administration. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:488-92.

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33. Frick RW. Three treatments for chronic venous insufficiency: escin, hydroxyethylrutoside, and Daflon. Angiology 2000;51:197-205 [review].

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39. Galley P, Thiollet M. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new veno-active flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in the treatment of symptomatic capillary fragility. Int Angiol 1993;12:69-72.

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41. Ohguro H, Ohguro I, Katai M, Tanaka S. Two-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of black currant anthocyanins on visual field in glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 2012;228:26–35.

42. Varma SD. Inhibition of aldose reductase by flavonoids: Possible attenuation of diabetic complications. Progr Clin Biol Res 1986;213:343-58.

43. Glacet-Bernard A, Coscas G, Chabanel A, et al. A randomized, double-masked study on the treatment of retinal vein occlusion with troxerutin. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118:421-9.

44. Holden M, Molloy E. Further experiments on the inactivation of herpes virus by vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). J Immunol 1937;33:251-7.

45. Terezhalmy GT, Bottomley WK, Pelleu GB. The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surg 1978;45:56-62.

46. CJ Smith. Non-hormonal control of vaso-motor flushing in menopausal patients. Chicago Med 1964;67:193-5.

47. Cohen JD, Rubin HW. Functional menorrhagia: treatment with bioflavonoids and vitamin C. Curr Ther ResClin Exp 1960;2:539-42.

48. Mukherjee GG, Gajaraj AJ, Mathias J, Marya D. Treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding with micronized flavonoids. Int J Gynaecol Obstet2005;89:156-7.

49. Johnston CS, Retrum KR, Srilakshmi JC. Antihistamine effects and complications of supplemental vitamin C. J Am Diet Assoc 1992;92:988-9.

50. Johnston S, Martin LJ, Cai X. Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:172-6.

51. Gabor M. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of flavonoids. Prog Clin Biol Res 1986;213:471-80 [review].

52. Middleton E, Drzewieki G. Naturally occurring flavonoids and human basophil histamine release. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1985;77:155-7.

53. Amella M, Bronner C, Briancon F, et al. Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Planta Medica 1985;51:16-20.

54. CJ Smith. Non-hormonal control of vaso-motor flushing in menopausal patients. Chicago Med 1964;67:193-5.

55. Varma SD. Inhibition of aldose reductase by flavonoids: Possible attenuation of diabetic complications. Progr Clin Biol Res 1986;213:343-58.

56. Glacet-Bernard A, Coscas G, Chabanel A, et al. A randomized, double-masked study on the treatment of retinal vein occlusion with troxerutin. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118:421-9.

57. Cohen JD, Rubin HW. Functional menorrhagia: treatment with bioflavonoids and vitamin C. Curr Ther ResClin Exp 1960;2:539-42.

58. Mukherjee GG, Gajaraj AJ, Mathias J, Marya D. Treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding with micronized flavonoids. Int J Gynaecol Obstet2005;89:156-7.

59. Moser M, Ranacher G, Wilmot TJ, Golden GJ. A double-blind clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in Meniere's disease. J Laryngol Otol 1984;98:265-72.

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68. Bar-Meir S, Halpern Z, Gutman M, et al. Effect of (+)-cyanidanol-3 on chronic active hepatitis: A double blind controlled trial. Gut 1985;26:975-9.

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70. Pamukcu AM, Yalciner S, Hatcher JF, Bryan GT. Quercetin, a rat intestinal and bladder carcinogen present in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Cancer Res 1980;40:3468-72.

71. Hirono I, Ueno I, Hosaka S, et al. Carcinogenicity examination of quercetin and rutin in ACI rats. Cancer Lett 1981;13:15-21.

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74. Nishino H, Nishino A, Iwashima A, et al. Quercetin inhibits the action of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a tumor promoter. Oncology 1984;41:120-3.

75. Kuo SM. Antiproliferative potency of structurally distinct dietary flavonoids on human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett 1996;110:41-8.

76. Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, et al. Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:223-30.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.