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Health Condition

Tendinitis

About This Condition

Tendinitis is a condition where a tendon or the connective tissue that surrounds the tendon becomes inflamed.

This is often due to overuse (e.g., repetitive work activities), acute injury, or excessive exercise. People who are at higher risk of developing tendinitis include athletes, manual laborers, and computer keyboard users. Occasionally, tendinitis may be due to diseases that affect the whole body, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout.

The most common sites of tendinitis are the shoulder, elbow, forearm, thumb, hip, hamstring muscles (in the back of the upper leg), and Achilles tendon (behind the ankle).1

Symptoms

People with tendinitis may have symptoms, which appear after injury or overuse, including swelling, redness, tenderness, and sharp pain in the affected area, which is worsened with movement or pressure.

Other Therapies

Treatment may include local injections of steroids such as dexamethasone (Decadron-LA®), methylprednisolone (Depo-Medrol®), and hydrocortisone (Solu-Cortef®), or anesthetics such as lidocaine (Xylocaine®), as well as immobilization and controlled physical therapy.

References

1. Berkow PK, Fletcher AJ, Beers MH (eds). The Merck Manual of diagnosis and therapy, 16th Ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 1992;1367-8.

2. Kneer W, Kuhnau S, Bias P, et al. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) gel in treatment of acute tendopathies. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Fortschritte Med 1994;112:142-6 [in German].

3. Lockie LM, Norcross BM. A clinical study on the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in 103 patients with acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries and inflammations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1967;141:599-602.

4. Steinberg A. The employment of dimethyl sulfoxide as an antiinflammatory agent and steroid-transporter in diversified clinical diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1967;141:532-50.

5. Brown JH, Wood DC, Jacob SW. Current status of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A double blind evaluation of its therapeutic value in acute strains, sprains, bursitis and tendonitis. Bull Soc Int Chir 1972;31:561-6.

6. Brown JH. A double blind study-DMSO for acute injuries and inflammations compared to accepted standard therapy. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1971;13:536-40.

7. Percy EC, Carson JD. The use of DMSO in tennis elbow and rotator cuff tendonitis: a double-blind study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1981;13:215-9.

8. Seligman B. Bromelain: an anti-inflammatory agent. Angiology 1962;13:508-10.

9. Cirelli MG. Treatment of inflammation and edema with bromelain. Delaware Med J 1962;34:159-67.

10. Masson M. Bromelain in the treatment of blunt injuries to the musculoskeletal system. A case observation study by an orthopedic surgeon in private practice. Fortschr Med 1995;113:303-6.

11. Miller JM. The absorption of proteolytic enzymes from the gastrointestinal tract. Clin Med 1968;75:35-42 [review].

12. Castell JV, Friedrich G, Kuhn CS, et al. Intestinal absorption of undegraded proteins in men: presence of bromelain in plasma after oral intake. Am J Physiol 1997;273:G139-46.

13. Cirelli MG. Five years experience with bromelains in therapy of edema and inflammation in postoperative tissue reaction, skin infections and trauma. Clin Med 1967;74(6):55-9.

14. Trickett P. Proteolytic enzymes in treatment of athletic injuries. Appl Ther 1964;6:647-52.

15. Sweeny FJ. Treatment of athletic injuries with an oral proteolytic enzyme. Med Times 1963:91:765.

16. Boyne PS, Medhurst H. Oral anti-inflammatory enzyme therapy in injuries in professional footballers. Practitioner 1967;198:543-6.

17. Deitrick RE. Oral proteolytic enzymes in the treatment of athletic injuries: A double-blind study. Pennsylvania Med J 1965;Oct:35-7.

18. Holt HT. Carica papaya as ancillary therapy for athletic injuries. Curr Ther Res 1969;11:621-4.

19. Rathgeber WF. The use of proteolytic enzymes (Chymoral) in sporting injuries. S Afr Med J 1971;45:181-3.

20. Buck JE, Phillips N. Trial of Chymoral in professional footballers. Br J Clin Pract 1970;24:375-7.

21. Kleinhenz J, Streitberger K, Windeler J, et al. Randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of acupuncture and a newly designed placebo needle in rotator cuff tendinitis. Pain 1999;83:235-41.

22. Haker E, Lundeberg T. Acupuncture treatment in epicondylalgia: a comparative study of two acupuncture techniques. Clin J Pain 1990;6:221-6.

23. Haker E, Lundeberg T. Laser treatment applied to acupuncture points in lateral humeral epicondylalgia. A double-blind study. Pain 1990;43:243-7.

24. Ebenbichler GR, Erdogmus CB, Resch KL, et al. Ultrasound therapy for calcific tendonitis of the shoulder. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1533-8.

25. van der Windt DA, van der Heijden GJ, van den Berg SG, et al. Ultrasound therapy for musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review. Pain 1999;81:257-71.

26. Klaiman MD, Shrader JA, Danoff JV, et al. Phonophoresis versus ultrasound in the treatment of common musculoskeletal conditions. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1349-55.

27. Kaada B. Treatment of peritendinitis calcarea of the shoulder by transcutaneous nerve stimulation. Acupunct Electrother Res 1984;9:115-25.

28. Saveriano G, Lionetti P, Maiolo F, Battisti E. Our experience in the use of a new objective pain measuring system in rheumarthropatic subjects treated with transcutaneous electroanalgesia and ultrasound. Minerva Med 1986;77:745-52 [in Italian].

29. Latko WA. Armstrong TJ, Franzblau A, et al. Cross-sectional study of the relationship between repetitive work and the prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Am J Ind Med 1999;36:248-59.

30. Piligian G, Herbert R, Hearns M, et al. Evaluation and management of chronic work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the distal upper extremity. Am J Ind Med 2000;37:75-93.

31. Stock SR. Workplace ergonomic factors and the development of musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper limbs: a meta-analysis. Am J Ind Med 1991;19:87-107.

32. Tittiranonda P, Rempel D, Armstrong T, Burastero S. Effect of four computer keyboards in computer users with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Am J Ind Med 1999;35:647-61.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2018.