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Health Condition

Premenstrual Syndrome

About This Condition

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a poorly understood complex of symptoms occurring a week to ten days before the start of each menstrual cycle.

PMS is believed to be triggered by changes in progesterone and estrogen levels.

Symptoms

Many premenopausal women suffer from symptoms of PMS at different points in their menstrual cycle. Symptoms include cramping, bloating, mood changes, and breast tenderness tied to the menstrual cycle.

References

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57. Biskind MS. Nutritional deficiency in the etiology of menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, cystic mastitis and premenstrual tension: treatment with vitamin B-complex. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1943;3:227-34.

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62. Rossignol AM. Caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome in young women. Am J Public Health 1985;75(11):1335-7.

63. Rossignol AM, Bonnlander H. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome. Am J Public Health 1990;80:1106-10.

64. Fenster L, Quale C, Waller K, et al. Caffeine consumption and menstrual function. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149:550-7.

65. Rossignol AM, Bonnlander H. Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content. J Reprod Med 1991;36:131-6.

66. Halliday A, Bush B, Cleary P, et al. Alcohol abuse in women seeking gynecologic care. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68;322-6.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2018.