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Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL; “bad” cholesterol) cholesterol, from damage.

References

1. Haeger K. Long-time treatment of intermittent claudication with vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr 1974;27:1179-81.

2. Williams HT, Fenna D, Macbeth RA. Alpha tocopherol in the treatment of intermittent claudication. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1971;Apr:662-6.

3. Donnan PT, Thomson M, Fowkes GR, et al. Diet as a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease in the general population: the Edinburgh Artery Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:917-21.

4. Livingstone PD, Jones C. Treatment of intermittent claudication with vitamin E. Lancet 1958;ii:602-4 [review].

5. Piesse JW. Vitamin E and peripheral vascular disease. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1984;4:178-82 [review].

6. Mino M. Clinical uses and abuses of vitamin E in children. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1992;200:266-70 [review].

7. Swann IL, Kendra JR. Anaemia, vitamin E deficiency and failure to thrive in an infant. Clin Lab Haematol 1998;20:61-3.

8. Hafez M, Amar ES, Zedan M, et al. Improved erythrocyte survival with combined vitamin E and selenium therapy in children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and mild chronic hemolysis. J Pediatr 1986;108:558-61.

9. Corash L, Spielberg S, Bartsocas C, et al. Reduced chronic hemolysis during high-dose vitamin E administration in Mediterranean-type glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. N Engl J Med 1980;303:416-20.

10. Eldamhougy S, Elhelw Z, Yamamah G, et al. The vitamin E status among glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients and effectiveness of oral vitamin E. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1988;58:184-8.

11. Ono K. Reduction of osmotic haemolysis and anaemia by high dose vitamin E supplementation in regular haemodialysis patients. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc Eur Ren Assoc 1985;21:296-9.

12. Ono K. Effects of large dose vitamin E supplementation on anemia in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 1985;40:440-5.

13. Boshtam M, Rafiei M, Sadeghi K, Sarraf-Zadegan N. Vitamin E can reduce blood pressure in mild hypertensives. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2002;72:309-14.

14. Riemersma RA, Wood DA, Macintyre CC, et al. Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotene. Lancet 1991;337:1-5.

15. Rinzler SH, Bakst H, Benjamin ZH, et al. Failure of alpha-tocopherol to influence chest pain in patients with heart disease. Circulation 1950;1:288-90.

16. Rapola RM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA 1996;275:693-8.

17. Miwa K, Miyagi Y, Igawa A, et al. Vitamin E deficiency in variant angina. Circulation 1996;94:14-8.

18. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Tastogi S. Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3). Am J Cardiol 1996;77:232-6.

19. Carrero JJ, Lopez-Huertas E, Salmeron LM, et al. Daily supplementation with (n-3) PUFAs, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E increases pain-free walking distance and improves risk factors in men with peripheral vascular disease. J Nutr2005;135:1393-9.

20. Belcher JD, Balla J, Balla G, et al. Vitamin E, LDL, and endothelium: Brief oral vitamin supplementation prevents oxidized LDL-mediated vascular injury in vitro. Arterioscler Thromb 1993;13:1779-89.

21. Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 1996;347:781-6.

22. Rimm E. Micronutrients, Coronary Heart disease and cancer: Should we all be on supplements? Presented at the 60th Annual Biology Colloquium, Oregon State University, February 25, 1999.

23. Salonen JT, Nyyssönen K, Salonen R, et al. Antioxidant supplementation in atherosclerosis prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamin E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 2000;248:177-86.

24. Cloarec MJ, Perdriset GM, Lamberdiere FA, et al., Alpha-tocopherol: effect on plasma lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic patients. Isr J Med Sci 1987;23:869-72.

25. Kesaniemi YA, Grundy SM. Lack of effect of tocopherol on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:224-8.

26. Kalbfleisch JH, Barboriak JJ, Else BA, et al. alpha-Tocopherol supplements and high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Br J Nutr 1986;55:71-7.

27. Stampfer MJ, Willett W, Castelli WP, et al. Effect of vitamin E on lipids. Am J Clin Pathol 1983;79:714-6.

28. Belcher JD, Balla J, Balla G, et al. Vitamin E, LDL, and endothelium: Brief oral vitamin supplementation prevents oxidized LDL-mediated vascular injury in vitro. Arterioscler Thromb 1993;13:1779-89.

29. Traber MG. Does vitamin E decrease heart attack risk? summary and implications with respect to dietary recommendations. J Nutr 2001;131:395S-7S. [review].

30. Bonithon-Kopp C, Coudray C, Berr C, et al. Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71 y: The EVA Study. Etude sur le Vieillisement Arteriel. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:121-7.

31. Kritchevsky SB, Shimakawa T, Tell GS, et al. Dietary antioxidants and carotid artery wall thickness. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 1995;92:2142-50.

32. Tomeo AC, Geller M, Watkins TR, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 1995;30:1179-83.

33. Steiner M, Glantz M, Lekos A. Vitamin E plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone in patients with transient ischemic attacks. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(6 Suppl):1381-4S.

34. Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1483-92.

35. Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Ridker PM, et al. Beta-carotene therapy for chronic stable angina. Circulation 1990;82(Suppl III):III-201 [abstract].

36. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Relation of consumption of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids to risk for stroke among men in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:963-70.

37. Mark SD, Wang W, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Do nutritional supplements lower the risk of stroke or hypertension? Epidemiology 1998;9:9-15.

38. Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1145-9.

39. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1029-35.

40. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Controlled trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on stroke incidence and mortality in male smokers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:230-5.

41. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9.

42. Kopecky SL, Gersh BJ, McGoon MD, et al. Lone atrial fibrillation in elderly persons: a marker for cardiovascular risk. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1118-22.

43. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998;58:257-63.

44. Berthold HK, Sudhop T. Garlic preparations for prevention of atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 1998;9:565-9 [review].

45. Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Pindur G, et al. Effect of garlic on thrombocyte aggregation, microcirculation and other risk factors. Int J Pharm Ther Toxicol 1991;29(4):151-5.

46. Leaf A, Weber PC. Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. N Engl J Med 1988;318:549-57 [review].

47. Calzada C, Bruckdorfer KR, Rice-Evans CA. The influence of antioxidant nutrients on platelet function in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 1997;128:97-105.

48. Steiner M. Vitamin E: more than an antioxidant. Clin Cardiol 1993;16:I16-8 [review].

49. Heemskerk JW, Vossen RC, van Dam-Mieras MC. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and function of platelets and endothelial cells. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996;7:24-9 [review].

50. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

51. Werninghaus K, Meydani M, Bhawan J, et al. Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation. Arch Dermatol 1994;130:1257-61.

52. Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:1006-12.

53. Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-8.

54. McArdle F, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, et al. Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1270-5.

55. Garmyn M, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russel RM, et al. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the human sunburn reaction. Exp Dermatol 1995;4:104-11.

56. Wolf C, Steiner A, Honigsmann H, et al. Do oral carotenoids protect human skin against UV erythema, psoralen phototoxicity, and UV-induced DNA damage? J Invest Dermatol 1988;90:55-57.

57. Mathews-Roth MM, Pathak MA, Parrish J, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of oral beta-carotene on the responses of human skin to solar radiation. J Invest Dermatol 1972;59:349-53.

58. Gollnick HP, Hopfenmuller W, Hemmes C, et al. Systemic B-carotene plus topical sunscreen are an optimal protection against harmful effects of natural UV-sunlight. Eur J Dermatol 1996;6:200-5.

59. Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, Watson RR. Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000;223:170-4.

60. Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, et al. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr 2003;133:98-101.

61. Aust O, Stahl W, Sies H, et al. Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2005;75:54-60.

62. Cesarini JP, Michel L, Maurette JM, et al. Immediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2003;19:182-9.

63. Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, et al. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2002;15:307-15.

64. La Ruche G, Cesarini JP. Protective effect of oral selenium plus copper associated with vitamin complex on sunburn cell formation in human skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1991;8:232-5.

65. Sies H, Stahl W. Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight. Annu Rev Nutr 2004;24:173-200 [review].

66. Sies H, Stahl W. Carotenoids and UV protection. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2004;3:749-52 [review].

67. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.

68. Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF Jr, et al. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1992;9:52-7.

69. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Influence of the application time point. Dermatology 1997;195:248-52.

70. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). A dose response study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:522-6.

71. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9.

72. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-5.

73. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

74. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.

75. Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF Jr, et al. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1992;9:52-7.

76. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Influence of the application time point. Dermatology 1997;195:248-52.

77. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). A dose response study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:522-6.

78. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9.

79. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-5.

80. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

81. Bartolomucci E. Action of vitamin E on healing of experimental wounds on parenchymatous organs. JAMA 1939;113:1079 [abstract].

82. Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Inhibitory effects of vitamin E on collagen synthesis and wound repair. Ann Surg 1972;175:235-40.

83. Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, et al. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil 1986;7:309-12.

84. Bates B. Vitamin E gets an ‘F' for wound healing, scarring. Family Practice News 1996;Sept 1:22.

85. Palmieri B, Gozzi G, Palmieri G. Vitamin E added silicone gel sheets for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Int J Dermatol 1995;34:506-9.

86. Juhlin L, Edqvist LE, Ekman LG, et al. Blood glutathione-peroxidase levels in skin diseases: effect of selenium and vitamin E treatment. Acta Derm Venereol 1982;62:211-4.

87. Ljunghall K, Juhlin L, Edqvist LE, Plantin LO. Selenium, glutathione-peroxidase and dermatitis herpetiformis. Acta Derm Venereol 1984;64:546-7.

88. Beijersbergen van Henegouwen GM, Junginger HE, de Vries H. Hydrolysis of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate) in the skin and its UV protecting activity (an in vivo study with the rat). J Photochem Photobiol B 1995;29:45-51.

89. Norkus EP, Bryce GF, Bhagavan HN. Uptake and bioconversion of alpha-tocopheryl acetate to alpha-tocopherol in skin of hairless mice. Photochem Photobiol 1993;57:613-5.

90. Ziaei S, Faghihzadeh S, Sohrabvand F, et al. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin E in treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;108:1181-3.

91. Ziaei S, Zakeri M, Kazemnejad A. A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. BJOG2005;112:466-9.

92. Perloff WH. Treatment of the menopause. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1949;58:684-94.

93. Gozan HA. The use of vitamin E in treatment of the menopause. NY State J Med 1952;52:1289.

94. Christy CJ. Vitamin E in menopause: Preliminary report of experimental and clinical study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1945:50:84.

95. Finkler RS. The effect of vitamin E in the menopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1949;9:89-94.

96. Rubenstein BB. Vitamin E diminishes the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Fed Proc 1948;7:106 [abstract].

97. Blatt MHG, Weisbader H, Kupperman HS. Vitamin E and climacteric syndrome: failure of effective control as measured by menopausal index. Arch Intern Med 1953;91:792-9.

98. Ziaei S, Kazemnejad A, Zareai M. The effect of vitamin E on hot flashes in menopausal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2007;64:204-7.

99. Chuong CJ, Dawson EB, Smith ER. Vitamin E levels in premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:1591-5.

100. London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, Goldstein PJ. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double blind study. J Am Coll Nutr 1983;2(2):115-22.

101. Santanam N, Kavtaradze N, Murphy A, et al. Antioxidant supplementation reduces endometriosis-related pelvic pain in humans. Transl Res 2013;161:189-95.

102. Abrams AA. Use of vitamin E in chronic cystic mastitis. N Engl J Med 1965;272(20):1080-1.

103. London RS, Sundaram GS, Schultz M, et al. Endocrine parameters and alpha-tocopherol therapy of patients with mammary dysplasia. Cancer Res 1981;41:3811-3.

104. Ernster VL, Goodson WH, Hunt TK, et al. Vitamin E and benign breast “disease”: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Surgery 1985;97:490-4.

105. London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, et al. The effect of vitamin E on mammary dysplasia: a double-blind study. Obstet Gynecol 1985;65:104-6.

106. Thiessen DD, Ondrusek G, Coleman RV. Vitamin E and sex behavior in mice. Nutr Metab 1975;18:116-9.

107. Bayer R. Treatment of infertility with vitamin E. Int J Fertil 1960;5:70-8.

108. Dasgupta PR, Dutta S, Banerjee P, Majumdar S. Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) in the management of menorrhagia associated with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (ICUD). Int J Fertil 1983;28:55-6.

109. Palan PR, Mikhail MS, Basu J, Romney SL. Plasma levels of antioxidant beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in uterine cervix dysplasias and cancer. Nutr Cancer l991;15:13-20.

110. Ho GY, Palan PR, Basu J, et al. Viral characteristics of human papillomavirus infection and antioxidant levels as risk factors for cervical dysplasia. Int J Cancer 1998;78:594-9.

111. Pike J, Chandra RK. Effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on immune indices in healthy elderly. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:117-21.

112. Chandra RK. Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. Lancet 1992;340:1124-7.

113. Chavance M, Herbeth B, Lemoine A, et al. Does multivitamin supplementation prevent infections in healthy elderly subjects? A controlled trial.Int.J Vitam Nutr Res 1993;63:11-6.

114. Girodon F, Lombard M, Galan P, et al. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on infection in institutionalized elderly subjects: a controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41:98-107.

115. Berger MM, Spertini F, Shenkin A, et al. Trace element supplementation modulates pulmonary infection rates after major burns: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:365-71.

116. Nead DE. Effective vitamin E treatment for ulcerative herpetic lesions. Dent Survey 1976;52(7):50-1.

117. Fink M, Fink J. Treatment of herpes simplex by alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Br Dent J 1980;148:246 [letter].

118. Zunic J, Stavljenic-Rukavina A, Granic P, et al. Changes in vitamin E concentration after surgery and anesthesia. Coll Antropol 1997;21:327-34.

119. Kawamura T, Ohisa Y, Abe Y, et al. Plasma lipid peroxides in the operation of esophageal cancer. Rinsho Byori 1992;40:881-4 [in Japanese].

120. Hans P, Canivet JL, Pincemail J, et al. Plasma vitamin E, total lipids and myeloperoxidase levels during spinal surgery. A comparison between two anesthetic agents: propofol and isoflurane. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991;35:302-5.

121. Greenwald DP. Zone II flexor tendon repair: effects of vitamins A, E and beta-carotene. J Surg Res 1990;49:98-102.

122. Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, et al. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil 1986;7:309-12.

123. Anastasi J, Steiner M. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on human platelet aggregation. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29:467 [abstract].

124. Menzel DB. Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of lung disease.Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992;669:141-55.

125. Gogu SR, Beckman BS, Rangan SR, Agrawal KC. Increased therapeutic efficacy of zidovudine in combination with vitamin E. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989;165:401-7.

126. Gogu SR, Agrawal KC. The protective role of zinc and N-acetylcysteine in modulating zidovudine induced hematopoietic toxicity. Life Sci 1996;59:1323-9.

127. Ziaei S, Faghihzadeh S, Sohrabvand F, et al. A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin E in treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;108:1181-3.

128. Ziaei S, Zakeri M, Kazemnejad A. A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. BJOG2005;112:466-9.

129. Chuong CJ, Dawson EB, Smith ER. Vitamin E levels in premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:1591-5.

130. London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, Goldstein PJ. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double blind study. J Am Coll Nutr 1983;2(2):115-22.

131. Santanam N, Kavtaradze N, Murphy A, et al. Antioxidant supplementation reduces endometriosis-related pelvic pain in humans. Transl Res 2013;161:189-95.

132. Dasgupta PR, Dutta S, Banerjee P, Majumdar S. Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) in the management of menorrhagia associated with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (ICUD). Int J Fertil 1983;28:55-6.

133. Ozturk HS, Cimen MY, Cimen OB, et al. Oxidant/antioxidant status of plasma samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 1999;19:35-7.

134. Fairburn K, Grootveld M, Ward RJ, et al. Alpha-tocopherol, lipids and lipoproteins in knee-joint synovial fluid and serum from patients with inflammatory joint disease. Clin Sci 1992;83:657-64.

135. Scherak O, Kolarz G. Vitamin E and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthrit Rheum 1991;34:1205-6 [letter].

136. Wittenborg A, Petersen G, Lorkowski G, Brabant T. Effectiveness of vitamin E in comparison with diclofenac sodium in treatment of patients with chronic polyarthritis. Z Rheumatol 1998;57:215-21 [in German].

137. Kolarz G, Scherak O, El Shohoumi M, Blankenhorn G. High dose vitamin E for chronic arthritis. Akt Rheumatol 1990;15:233-7 [in German].

138. Edmonds SE, Winyard PG, Guo R, et al. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo controlled double-blind trial. Ann Rheum Dis 1997;56:649-55.

139. Miehle W. Vitamin E in active arthroses and chronic polyarthritis. What is the value of alpha-tocopherol in therapy? Fortschr Med 1997;115:39-42.

140. McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthrit Rheum 1996;39:648-56.

141. Machtey I, Ouaknine L. Tocopherol in osteoarthritis: a controlled pilot study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1978;25(7):328-30.

142. Blankenhorn G. Klinische Wirtsamkeit von Spondyvit (vitamin E) bei aktiverten arthronsen. Z Orthop 1986;124:340-3 [in German].

143. Scherak O, Kolarz G, Schödl Ch, Blankenhorn G. Hochdosierte Vitamin-E-Therapie bei Patienten mit aktivierter Arthrose. Z Rheumatol 1990;49:369-73 [in German].

144. Brand C, Snaddon J, Bailey M, Cicuttini F. Vitamin E is ineffective for symptomatic relief of knee osteoarthritis: a six month double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 2001;60:946-9.

145. Thomson GR. Treatment of Dupuytren's contracture with vitamin E. BMJ 1949;Dec 17:1382-3.

146. Richards HJ. Dupuytren's contracture treated with vitamin E. BMJ 1952;June 21:1328.

147. Kirk JE, Chieffi M. Tocopherol administration to patients with Dupuytren's contracture: effect on plasma tocopherol levels and degree of contracture. Pro Soc Exp Biol Med 1952;80:565 [review].

148. Nead DE. Effective vitamin E treatment for ulcerative herpetic lesions. Dent Survey 1976;52(7):50-1.

149. Fink M, Fink J. Treatment of herpes simplex by alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Br Dent J 1980;148:246 [letter].

150. Singh N, Chander Narula S, al. Vitamin E supplementation, superoxide dismutase status, and outcome of scaling and root planing in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol 2014;85:242–9.

151. Garewal H. Antioxidants in oral cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(suppl):1410S-6S [review].

152. Kaugars GE, Silverman S Jr, Lovas JG, et al. A clinical trial of antioxidant supplements in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994 Oct;78:462-8.

153. Zaridze D, Evstifeeva T, Boyle P. Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia and chronic esophagitis in an area of high incidence of oral and esophageal cancer. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:225-34.

154. Benner SE, Winn RJ, Lippman SM, et al. Regression of oral leukoplakia with alpha-tocopherol: a community clinical oncology program chemoprevention study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:44-7.

155. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA, Tuovinen VJ, et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1993;89:51-9.

156. Murray M, Pizzorno J. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, rev2d ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998, 722-9.

157. Pack ARC. Folate mouthwash: effects on established gingivitis in periodontal patients. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:619-28.

158. Bartolomucci E. Action of vitamin E on healing of experimental wounds on parenchymatous organs. JAMA 1939;113:1079 [abstract].

159. Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Inhibitory effects of vitamin E on collagen synthesis and wound repair. Ann Surg 1972;175:235-40.

160. Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, et al. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil 1986;7:309-12.

161. Bates B. Vitamin E gets an ‘F' for wound healing, scarring. Family Practice News 1996;Sept 1:22.

162. Palmieri B, Gozzi G, Palmieri G. Vitamin E added silicone gel sheets for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Int J Dermatol 1995;34:506-9.

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180. Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, et al. Effect of sustained pharmacological vitamin E levels on incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity: A controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr 1989;114:827-38.

181. Raju TN, Langenberg P, Bhutani V, Quinn GE. Vitamin E prophylaxis to reduce retinopathy of prematurity: a reappraisal of published trials. J Pediatr 1997;131:844-50.

182. Hittner HM, Godio LB, Rudoph AJ, et al. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1365-71.

183. Runge P, Muller DP, McAllister J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplements can prevent the retinopathy of abetalipoproteinaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70:166-73.

184. De Hoff JB, Ozazewski J. Alpha tocopherol to treat diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1954;37:581-2.

185. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

186. Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypotheses 1984;13:77-98.

187. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

188. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

189. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

190. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

191. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

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193. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

194. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

195. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

196. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

197. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

198. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.

199. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

200. Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124-7.

201. Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171-80.

202. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650-6.

203. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.

204. Tütüncü NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8.

205. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1291-6.

206. Paolisso G, Gambardella A, Galzerano D, et al. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:596 [letter].

207. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

208. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

209. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

210. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

211. Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, et al. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:458-61.

212. Jain SK, McVie R, Smith T. Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1389-94.

213. Reaven PD, Barnett J, Herold DA, Edelman S. Effect of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:807.

214. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.

215. Skrha J, Sindelka G, Kvasnicka J, Hilgertova J. Insulin action and fibrinolysis influenced by vitamin E in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;44:27-33.

216. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9.

217. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Marniumi J, et al. Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1999;245:99-102.

218. Salonen JT, Nyssonen K, Tuomainen T-P, et al. Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men. BMJ 1995;311:1124-7.

219. Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FJ, Machlin LJ, et al. The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, post coronary and normal subjects. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1171-80.

220. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:650-6.

221. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1433-7.

222. Tütüncü NB, Bayraktar M, Varli K. Reversal of defective nerve condition with vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1915-8.

223. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1291-6.

224. Paolisso G, Gambardella A, Galzerano D, et al. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:596 [letter].

225. Ross WM, Creighton MO, Stewart-DeHaan PJ, et al. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis: 3. In vivo effects of vitamin E on cataractogenesis in diabetic rats. Can J Ophthalmol 1982;17:61.

226. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

227. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A, et al. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1991;14:68-72.

228. Duntas L, Kemmer TP, Vorberg B, Scherbaum W. Administration of d-alpha-tocopherol in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:682-90.

229. Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, et al. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:458-61.

230. Jain SK, McVie R, Smith T. Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in erythrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1389-94.

231. Reaven PD, Barnett J, Herold DA, Edelman S. Effect of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:807.

232. Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:753-9.

233. Skrha J, Sindelka G, Kvasnicka J, Hilgertova J. Insulin action and fibrinolysis influenced by vitamin E in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;44:27-33.

234. Leppala JM, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, et al. Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1503-9.

235. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1291-6.

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242. Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, et al. Effect of sustained pharmacological vitamin E levels on incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity: A controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr 1989;114:827-38.

243. Raju TN, Langenberg P, Bhutani V, Quinn GE. Vitamin E prophylaxis to reduce retinopathy of prematurity: a reappraisal of published trials. J Pediatr 1997;131:844-50.

244. Hittner HM, Godio LB, Rudoph AJ, et al. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1365-71.

245. Runge P, Muller DP, McAllister J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplements can prevent the retinopathy of abetalipoproteinaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70:166-73.

246. De Hoff JB, Ozazewski J. Alpha tocopherol to treat diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1954;37:581-2.

247. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

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282. Katz ML, Parker KR, Handelman GJ, et al. Effects of antioxidant nutrient deficiency on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium of albino rats: a light and electron microscopic study. Exp Eye Res 1982;34:339-69.

283. West S, Vitale S, Hallfrisch J, et al. Are anti-oxidants or supplements protective of age-related macular degeneration? Arch Ophthalmol 1994:112:222-7.

284. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 1993:111:104-9.

285. Goldberg J, Flowerdew G, Smith E, et al. Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration. Am J Epidemiol 1988:128:700-10.

286. Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K, Leeder SR. Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 1999;106:761-7.

287. Teikari JM, Laatikainen L, Virtamo J, et al. Six-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and age-related maculopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998;76:224-9.

288. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, Buring JE. Vitamin E and age-related macular degeneration in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmology 2010;117:1163-8.

289. Alieva ZA, Gadzhiev RV, Sultanov M. Possible role of the antioxidant system of the vitreous body in delaying the development of diabetic retinopathy. Oftalmol Zh 1985;(3):142-5 [in Russian].

290. Johnson L, Quinn GE, Abbasi S, et al. Effect of sustained pharmacological vitamin E levels on incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity: A controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr 1989;114:827-38.

291. Raju TN, Langenberg P, Bhutani V, Quinn GE. Vitamin E prophylaxis to reduce retinopathy of prematurity: a reappraisal of published trials. J Pediatr 1997;131:844-50.

292. Hittner HM, Godio LB, Rudoph AJ, et al. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1365-71.

293. Runge P, Muller DP, McAllister J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplements can prevent the retinopathy of abetalipoproteinaemia. Br J Ophthalmol 1986;70:166-73.

294. De Hoff JB, Ozazewski J. Alpha tocopherol to treat diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1954;37:581-2.

295. Bursell S-E, Schlossman DK, Clermont AC, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1245-51.

296. Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypotheses 1984;13:77-98.

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298. Knekt P, Heliovaara M, Rissanen A, et al. Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract. BMJ 1992;305:1392-4.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.