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Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that has a number of biological functions.

References

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2. Hemilä H. Vitamin C supplementation and common cold symptoms: factors affecting the magnitude of the benefit. Med Hypotheses 1999;52:171-8.

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20. Hemila H. Vitamin C and the common cold. Br J Nutr 1992;67:3-16.

21. Hemilä H. Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress. Int J Sports Med 1996;17:379-83.

22. Penn ND, Purkins L, Kelleher J, et al. The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins A, C and E on cell-mediated immune function in elderly long-stay patients: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1991;20:169-74.

23. de la Fuente M, Ferrandez MD, Burgos MS, et al. Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:373-80.

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28. Terezhalmy GT, Bottomley WK, Pelleu GB. The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surg 1978;45:56-62.

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32. Wendt MD, Soparkar CN, Louie K, et al. Ascorbate stimulates type I and type III collagen in human Tenon's fibroblasts. J Glaucoma 1997;6:402-7.

33. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur Surg Res 1995;27:158-66.

34. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. Eur Surg Res 1996;28:306-14.

35. Blee TH, Cogbill TH, Lambert PJ. Hemorrhage associated with vitamin C deficiency in surgical patients. Surgery 2002;131:408-12.

36. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

37. Werninghaus K, Meydani M, Bhawan J, et al. Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation. Arch Dermatol 1994;130:1257-61.

38. Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:1006-12.

39. Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-8.

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44. Gollnick HP, Hopfenmuller W, Hemmes C, et al. Systemic B-carotene plus topical sunscreen are an optimal protection against harmful effects of natural UV-sunlight. Eur J Dermatol 1996;6:200-5.

45. Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, Watson RR. Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000;223:170-4.

46. Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, et al. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr 2003;133:98-101.

47. Aust O, Stahl W, Sies H, et al. Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2005;75:54-60.

48. Cesarini JP, Michel L, Maurette JM, et al. Immediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2003;19:182-9.

49. Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, et al. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2002;15:307-15.

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53. Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of ascorbic acid. N Engl J Med 1986;314:892-902 [review].

54. Mazzotta MY. Nutrition and wound healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1994;84:456-62 [review].

55. Ringsdorf WM Jr, Cheraskin E. Vitamin C and human wound healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982;53:231-6 [review].

56. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. Eur Surg Res 1996;28:306-14.

57. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur Surg Res 1995;27:158-66.

58. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.

59. Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF Jr, et al. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1992;9:52-7.

60. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Influence of the application time point. Dermatology 1997;195:248-52.

61. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). A dose response study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:522-6.

62. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9.

63. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-5.

64. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

65. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.

66. Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF Jr, et al. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1992;9:52-7.

67. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Influence of the application time point. Dermatology 1997;195:248-52.

68. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). A dose response study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:522-6.

69. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9.

70. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-5.

71. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

72. Houwing R, Overgoor M, Kon M, et al. Pressure-induced skin lesions in pigs: reperfusion injury and the effects of vitamin E. J Wound Care 2000; 9:36-40.

73. Lucero MJ, Vigo J, Rabasco AM, et al. Protection by alpha-tocopherol against skin necrosis induced by doxorubicin hydrochloride. Pharmazie 1993;48:772-5.

74. Shukla A, Rasik AM, Patnaik GK. Depletion of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and antioxidant defence enzymes in a healing cutaneous wound. Free Radic Res 1997;26:93-101.

75. Ramasastry, SS, Angel MF, Narayanan K, et al. Biochemical evidence of lipoperoxidation in venous stasis ulcer: Beneficial role of vitamin E as antioxidant. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989; 506-8.

76. Hajarizadeh H, Lebredo L, Barrie R, Woltering EA. Protective effect of doxorubicin in vitamin C or dimethyl sulfoxide against skin ulceration in the pig. Ann Surg Oncol 1994;1:411-4.

77. Goode HF, Burns E, Walker BE. Vitamin C depletion and pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. BMJ 1992;305:935-7.

78. Afifi AM, Ellis L, Huntsman RG, Said MI. High dose ascorbic acid in the management of thalassaemia leg ulcers—a pilot study. Br J Dermatol 1975;92:339-41.

79. Taylor TV, Rimmer S, Day B, et al. Ascorbic acid supplementation in the treatment of pressure cores. Lancet 1974;ii:544-6.

80. ter Riet G, Kessels AG, Knipschild PG. Randomized clinical trial of ascorbic acid in the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Clin Epidemiol 1995;48:1453-60.

81. Anonymous. Severe atopic dermatitis responds to ascorbic acid. Med World News 1989;April 24:41.

82. Montes LF, Diaz ML, Lajous J, Garcia NJ. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in vitiligo: a nutritional approach. Cutis 1992;50:39-42.

83. Juhlin L, Olsson MJ. Improvement of vitiligo after oral treatment with vitamin B12 and folic acid and the importance of sun exposure. Acta Derm Venereol 1997;77:460-2.

84. Frei B. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1113S-8S.

85. Simon JA. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:107-27.

86. Gatto LM, Hallen GK, Brown AJ, Samman S. Ascorbic acid induces a favorable lipoprotein profile in women. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15;154-8.

87. Balz F. Antioxidant Vitamins and Heart Disease. Presented at the 60th Annual Biology Colloquium, Oregon State University, February 25, 1999.

88. Bradley DW, Maynard JE, Webster H. Plasma and whole blood concentrations of ascorbic acid in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Am J Clin Pathol 1973;60:145-7.

89. Sullivan JF, Eisenstein AB. Ascorbic acid depletion during hemodialysis. JAMA 1972;220:1697-9.

90. Tomson CR, Channon SM, Parkinson IS. Correction of subclinical ascorbate deficiency in patients receiving dialysis: effects on plasma oxalate, serum cholesterol, and capillary fragility. Clin Chim Acta 1989;180:255-64.

91. Cox BD, Butterfield WJ. Vitamin C supplements and diabetic cutaneous capillary fragility. Br Med J 1975;3:205.

92. Will JC, Byers T. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C? Nutr Rev 1996;54:193-202 [review].

93. Schorah CJ, Tormey WP, Brooks GH, et al. The effect of vitamin C supplements on body weight, serum proteins, and general health of an elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:871-6.

94. Chambers JC, McGregor A, Jean-Marie J, et al. Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia. An effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. Circulation 1999;99:1156-60.

95. Frei B. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1113S-8S.

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97. Salonen JT, Nyyssönen K, Salonen R, et al. Antioxidant supplementation in atherosclerosis prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamin E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 2000;248:177-86.

98. Juraschek SP, Guallar E, Appel LJ, Miller ER III. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1079-88.

99. Chambers JC, McGregor A, Jean-Marie J, et al. Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia. An effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. Circulation 1999;99:1156-60.

100. Fuller CJ, Grundy SM, Norkus EP, Jialal I. Effect of ascorbate supplementation on low density lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. Atherosclerosis 1996;119:139-50.

101. Rath M, Pauling L. Solution to the puzzle of human cardiovascular disease: Its primary cause is ascorbate deficiency leading to the deposition of lipoprotein (a) and fibrinogen/fibrin in the vascular wall. J Orthomol Med 1992;6:125-34.

102. Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of vitamin C and incidence of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 1992;85:865 [abstract].

103. Klipstein-Grobusch K, Geleijnse JM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:261-6.

104. Nyyssönen K, Parvianinen MT, Salonen R, et al. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland. BMJ 1997;314:634-8.

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108. Chambers JC, McGregor A, Jean-Marie J, et al. Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia. An effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. Circulation 1999;99:1156-60.

109. Fuller CJ, Grundy SM, Norkus EP, Jialal I. Effect of ascorbate supplementation on low density lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. Atherosclerosis 1996;119:139-50.

110. Rath M, Pauling L. Solution to the puzzle of human cardiovascular disease: Its primary cause is ascorbate deficiency leading to the deposition of lipoprotein (a) and fibrinogen/fibrin in the vascular wall. J Orthomol Med 1992;6:125-34.

111. Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of vitamin C and incidence of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 1992;85:865 [abstract].

112. Klipstein-Grobusch K, Geleijnse JM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:261-6.

113. Nyyssönen K, Parvianinen MT, Salonen R, et al. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland. BMJ 1997;314:634-8.

114. Simon JA, Hudes ES, Browner WS. Serum ascorbic acid and cardiovascular disease prevalence in U.S. adults. Epidemiology 1998;9:316-21.

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118. Ringsdorf WM Jr, Cheraskin E. Vitamin C and human wound healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982;53:231-6 [review].

119. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. Eur Surg Res 1996;28:306-14.

120. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, et al. Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial. Eur Surg Res 1995;27:158-66.

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325. Jakeman P, Maxwell S. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on muscle function after eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1993;67:426-30.

326. Kaminski M, Boal R. An effect of ascorbic acid on delayed-onset muscle soreness. Pain 1992;50:317-21.

327. Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, et al. Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001;11:466-81.

328. Thompson D, Williams C, Garcia-Roves P, et al. Post-exercise vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;89:393-400.

329. Itoh H, Ohkuwa T, Yamazaki Y, et al. Vitamin E supplementation attenuates leakage of enzymes following 6 successive days of running training. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:369-74.

330. McBride JM, Kraemer WJ, Triplett-McBride T, Sebastianelli W. Effect of resistance exercise on free radical production. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:67-72.

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332. Dawson B, Henry GJ, Goodman C, et al. Effect of Vitamin C and E supplementation on biochemical and ultrastructural indices of muscle damage after a 21 km run. Int J Sports Med 2002;23:10-5.

333. Beaton LJ, Allan DA, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:798-805.

334. Petersen EW, Ostrowski K, Ibfelt T, et al. Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2001;280:C1570-5.

335. Kanter MM, Nolte LA, Holloszy JO. Effects of an antioxidant vitamin mixture on lipid peroxidation at rest and postexercise. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:965-9.

336. Kaikkonen J, Kosonen L, Nyyssonen K, et al. Effect of combined coenzyme Q10 and d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and muscular damage: a placebo-controlled double-blind study in marathon runners. Free Radic Res 1998;29:85-92.

337. Singh A, Failla ML, Deuster PA. Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1994;76:2298-303.

338. Johnston CS, Swan PD, Corte C. Substrate utilization and work efficiency during submaximal exercise in vitamin C depleted-repleted adults. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1999;69:41-4.

339. Gerster H. The role of vitamin C in athletic performance. J Am Coll Nutr 1989;8:636-43 [review].

340. Tiidus PM, Houston ME. Vitamin E status and response to exercise training. Sports Med 1995;20:12-23 [review].

341. Akova B, Surmen-Gur E, Gur H, et al. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance in healthy women: role of vitamin E supplementation and endogenous oestradiol. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001;84:141-7.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.