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Nutritional Supplement

Melatonin

Melatonin is a natural hormone that regulates the human biological clock.

References

1. Claustrat B, Brun J, Geoffriau M, et al. Nocturnal plasma melatonin profile and melatonin kinetics during infusion in status migrainosus. Cephalalgia 1997;17:511-7 (discussion 487).

2. Nagtegaal JE, Smits MG, Swart AC, et al. Melatonin-responsive headache in delayed sleep phase syndrome: preliminary observations. Headache 1998;38:303-7.

3. Goncalves AL, Martini Ferreira A, Ribeiro RT, et al. Randomised clinical trial comparing melatonin 3 mg, amitriptyline 25 mg and placebo for migraine prevention. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016;87:1127–32.

4. Alstadhaug KB, Odeh F, Salvesen R, Bekkelund SI. Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2010;75:1527-32.

5. Chazot G, Claustrat B, Brun J, et al. A chronobiological study of melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin secretion in cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1984;4:213-20.

6. Waldenlind E, Gustafsson SA, Ekbom KA, Wetterberg L. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin during active cluster periods and remission. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50:207-13.

7. Leone M, Lucini V, D'Amico D, et al. Twenty-four-hour melatonin and cortisol plasma levels in relation to timing of cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1995;15:224-9.

8. Leone M, Lucini V, D'Amico D, et al. Abnormal 24-hour urinary excretory pattern of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in both phases of cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1998;18:664-7.

9. Leone M, D'Amico D, Moschiano F, et al. Melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a double-blind pilot study with parallel groups. Cephalalgia 1996;16:494-6.

10. Peres MFP, Rozen TD. Melatonin in the preventive treatment of chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia 2001;21:993-5.

11. Citera G, Arias MA, Maldonado-Cocco JA, et al. The effect of melatonin in patients with fibromyalgia: a pilot study. Clin Rheumatol 2000;19:9-13.

12. Yi C, Pan X, Yan H, et al. Effects of melatonin in age-related macular degeneration. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1057:384-92.

13. Wade AG, Farmer M, Harari G, et al. Add-on prolonged-release melatonin for cognitive function and sleep in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Clin Interv Aging 2014;9:947–61.

14. Myers BL, Badia P. Changes in circadian rhythms and sleep quality with aging: mechanisms and interventions. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1995;19(4):553-71. Published erratum appears in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20(2):I-IV.

15. Dollins AB, Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, et al. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91(5):1824-8.

16. Dori D, Casale G, Solerte SB, et al. Chrono-neuroendocrinological aspects of physiological aging and senile dementia. Chronobiologia 1994;21(1-2):121-6.

17. Comperatore CA, Lieberman HR, Kirby AW, et al. Melatonin efficacy in aviation missions requiring rapid deployment and night operations. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67(6):520-4.

18. Jean-Louis G, von Gizycki H, Zizi F. Melatonin effects on sleep, mood, and cognition in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. J Pineal Res 1998;25(3):177-83.

19. Slotten HA, Krekling S. Does melatonin have an effect on cognitive performance? Psychoneuro-endocrinology 1996;21(8):673-80.

20. Haimov I, Laudon M, Zisapel N, et al. Sleep disorders and melatonin rhythms in elderly people. BMJ 1994;309:167.

21. Singer C, McArthur A, Hughes R, et al. Melatonin and sleep in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:51 [abstr #A1].

22. Attenburrow MEJ, Dowling BA, Sharpley AL, Cowen PJ. Case-control study of evening melatonin concentration in primary insomnia. BMJ 1996;312:1263-4.

23. Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, Lynch HJ, et al. Sleep-inducing effects of low doses of melatonin ingested in the evening. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995;57:552-8.

24. James SP, Sack DA, Rosenthal NE, Mendelson WB. Melatonin administration in insomnia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1989;3:19-23.

25. Tomoda A, Miike T, Iwatani N, et al. Effect of long-term melatonin administration on school-phobic children and adolescents with sleep disturbances. Curr Ther Res 1999;60:607-12.

26. Shamir E, Laudon M, Barak Y, et al. Melatonin improves sleep quality of patients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2000;61:373-7.

27. Garfinkel D, Laudon M, Nof D, Zisapel N. Improvement of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet 1995;346:541-4.

28. Petrie K, Conaglen JV, Thompson L, Chamberlain K. Effect of melatonin on jet lag after long haul flights. BMJ 1989;298:705-7.

29. Claustrat B, Brun J, David M, et al. Melatonin and jet lag: confirmatory result using a simplified protocol. Biol Psychiatry 1992;32:705-11.

30. Edwards BJ, Atkinson G, Waterhouse J, et al. Use of melatonin in recovery from jet-lag following an eastward flight across 10 time-zones. Ergonomics 2000;43:1501-13.

31. Spitzer RL, Terman M, Williams JB, et al. Jet lag: clinical features, validation of a new syndrome-specific scale, and lack of response to melatonin in a randomized, double-blind trial. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:1392-6.

32. Petrie K, Dawson AG, Thompson L, et al. A double-blind trial of melatonin as a treatment for jet lag in international cabin crew. Bio Psych 1993;33(7):526-30.

33. Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R, et al. Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. Chronobiol Int 1998;15:655-66.

34. Rosenberg SI,Silverstein H,Rowan PT, et al. Effect of melatonin on tinnitus. The Laryngoscope. 1998 Mar;108(3):305-10

35. Megwalu UC,Finnell JE,Piccirillo JF. The effects of melatonin on tinnitus and sleep. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 2006 Feb;134(2):210-3

36. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.

37. Burke KE, Burford RG, Combs GF Jr, et al. The effect of topical L-selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1992;9:52-7.

38. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Influence of the application time point. Dermatology 1997;195:248-52.

39. Bangha E, Elsner P, Kistler GS. Suppression of UV-induced erythema by topical treatment with melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). A dose response study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:522-6.

40. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9.

41. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-5.

42. Fuchs J. Potentials and limitations of the natural antioxidants RRR-alpha-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:848-73 [review].

43. Lewy AJ, Bauer VK, Cutler NL, Sack RL. Melatonin treatment of winter depression: a pilot study. Psychiatr Res 1998;77:57-61.

44. Dolberg OT, Hirschmann S, Grunhaus L. Melatonin for the treatment of sleep disturbances in major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:1119-21.

45. Shamir E, Laudon M, Barak Y, et al. Melatonin improves sleep quality of patients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2000;61:373-7.

46. Yi C, Pan X, Yan H, et al. Effects of melatonin in age-related macular degeneration. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1057:384-92.

47. Samples JR, Krause G, Lewy AJ. Effect of melatonin on intraocular pressure. Curr Eye Res 1988;7:649-53.

48. Song GH, Leng PH, Gwee KA, et al. Melatonin improves abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome patients who have sleep disturbances: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Gut 2005;54:1402-7.

49. Saha L, Malhotra S, Rana S, et al. A preliminary study of melatonin in irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007;41:29-32.

50. Amstrup AK, Sikjaer T, Heickendorff L, et al. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial. J Pineal Res 2015;59:221–9.

51. Grossman E, Laudon M, Yalcin R, et al. Melatonin reduces night blood pressure in patients with nocturnal hypertension. Am J Med 2006;119:898-902.

52. Rosenberg SI,Silverstein H,Rowan PT, et al. Effect of melatonin on tinnitus. The Laryngoscope. 1998 Mar;108(3):305-10

53. Megwalu UC,Finnell JE,Piccirillo JF. The effects of melatonin on tinnitus and sleep. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 2006 Feb;134(2):210-3

54. Myers BL, Badia P. Changes in circadian rhythms and sleep quality with aging: mechanisms and interventions. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1995;19(4):553-71. Published erratum appears in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20(2):I-IV.

55. Dollins AB, Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, et al. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91(5):1824-8.

56. Dori D, Casale G, Solerte SB, et al. Chrono-neuroendocrinological aspects of physiological aging and senile dementia. Chronobiologia 1994;21(1-2):121-6.

57. Comperatore CA, Lieberman HR, Kirby AW, et al. Melatonin efficacy in aviation missions requiring rapid deployment and night operations. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67(6):520-4.

58. Jean-Louis G, von Gizycki H, Zizi F. Melatonin effects on sleep, mood, and cognition in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. J Pineal Res 1998;25(3):177-83.

59. Slotten HA, Krekling S. Does melatonin have an effect on cognitive performance? Psychoneuro-endocrinology 1996;21(8):673-80.

60. Garfinkel D, Laudon M, Nof D, Zisapel N. Improvement of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet 1995;346:541-4.

61. Haimov I, Laudon M, Zisapel N, et al. Sleep disorders and melatonin rhythms in elderly people. BMJ 1994;309:167.

62. Singer C, McArthur A, Hughes R, et al. Melatonin and sleep in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:51 [abstr #A1].

63. Zeitzer JM, Daniels JE, Duffy JF, et al. Do plasma melatonin concentrations decline with age? Am J Med 1999;107:432-6.

64. Attenburrow MEJ, Dowling BA, Sharpley AL, Cowen PJ. Case-control study of evening melatonin concentration in primary insomnia. BMJ 1996;312:1263-4.

65. Folkard S, Arendt J, Clark M. Can melatonin improve shift workers' tolerance of the night shift? Some preliminary findings. Chronobiol Int 1993;10:315-20.

66. Sakotnik A, Liebmann PM, Stoschitzky K. Decreased melatonin synthesis in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 1999;20:1314-7.

67. Shamir E, Laudon M, Barak Y, et al. Melatonin improves sleep quality of patients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2000;61:373-7.

68. Weaver DR. Reproductive safety of melatonin: a “wonder drug” to wonder about. J Biol Rhythms 1997;12:682-9.

69. Arendt J. Safety of melatonin in long-term use(?) J Biol Rhythms 1997;12:673-81.

70. Luboshitzky R, Shen-Orr Z, Nave R, Lavi S, Lavie P. Melatonin administration alters semen quality in healthy men. J Androl 2002;23:572-8.

71. Sheldon SH. Pro-convulsant effects or oral melatonin in neurologically disabled children. Lancet 1998;351:1254.

72. Shannon M. Alternative medicines toxicology: a review of selected agents. J Clin Toxicol 1999;37:709-13.

73. Guardiola-Lemaître B. Toxicology of melatonin. J Biol Rhythms 1997;12:697-706.

74. Lamberg L. Melatonin potentially useful but safety, efficacy remain uncertain. JAMA 1996;276:1011-4.

75. Force RW, Hansen L, Badell M. Psychotic episode after melatonin. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31:1408 [letter].

76. Porterfield LM. Can melatonin cause severe headaches? RN 1996;59:75.

77. Bornman MS, Schulenburg GW, Reif S, et al. Seminal plasma melatonin and semen parameters. S Afr Med J 1992;81:485-6.

78. Middleton B. Melatonin and fragmented sleep patterns. Lancet 1996;348:551-2 [letter].

79. De Bleeker JL, Verstraete AG, Schelfhout VJ. Melatonin and painful gynecomastia. Neurology 1999;53:435-6 [letter].

80. Korszun A, Sackett-Lundeen L, Papadopoulos E, et al. Melatonin levels in women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. J Rheumatol 1999;26:2675-80.

81. Cagnacci A, Arangino S, Renzi A, et al. Influence of melatonin administration on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol2001;54:339-46.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2019.