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Nutritional Supplement

Magnesium

Magnesium is an essential mineral to the human body. It is needed for bone, protein, and fatty acid formation, making new cells, activating B vitamins, relaxing muscles, clotting blood, and forming adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy the body runs on. The secretion and action of insulin also require magnesium.

References

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2. Packer M, Gottlieb SS, Kessler PD. Hormone-electrolyte interactions in the pathogenesis of lethal cardiac arrhythmias in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Med 1986;80 (Suppl 4A):23-9.

3. Galland LD, Baker SM, McLellan RK. Magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of mitral valve prolapse. Magnesium 1986;5:165-74.

4. Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, et al. Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:768-72.

5. Bashir Y, Sneddon JF, Staunton A, et al. Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1156-62.

6. Tsuji H, Venditti FJ, Evans JC, et al. The associations of levels of serum potassium and magnesium with ventricular premature complexes (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1994;74:232-5.

7. Tzivoni D, Keren A. Suppression of ventricular arrhythmias by magnesium. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:1397-9 [review].

8. Brugada P. Magnesium: an antiarrhythmic drug, but only against very specific arrhythmias. Eur Heart J 2000;21:1116 [review].

9. Motoyama T, Sano H, Fukuzaki H, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1989;13:227-32.

10. Patki PS, Singh J, Gokhale SV, et al. Efficacy of potassium and magnesium in essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. BMJ 1990;301:521-3.

11. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. BMJ 1983;286:1847-9.

12. Turlapaty P, Altura B. Magnesium deficiency produces spasms of coronary arteries: Relationship to etiology of sudden death ischemic heart disease. Science 1980;208:199-200.

13. Goto K, Yasue H, Okumura K, et al. Magnesium deficiency detected by intravenous loading test in variant angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:709-12.

14. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of variant angina. Magnesium 1984;3:46-9.

15. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Prompt termination and/or prevention of cold-pressor-stimulus-induced vasoconstriction of different vascular beds by magnesium sulfate in patients with Prinzmetal's angina. Magnesium 1986;5:144-9.

16. Shechter M, Bairey Merz CN, et al. Effects of oral magnesium therapy on exercise tolerance, exercise-induced chest pain, and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:517-21.

17. Davis WH, Leary WP, Reyes AJ, Olhaberry JV. Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipoprotein cholesterol: a clinical assay. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:341-6.

18. Nozue T, Kobayashi A, Uemasu F, et al. Magnesium status, serum HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-1 levels. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;20:316-8.

19. Baxter GF, Sumeray MS, Walker JM. Infarct size and magnesium: insights into LIMIT-2 and ISIS-4 from experimental studies. Lancet 1996;348:1424-6.

20. Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7.

21. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.

22. Yang CY. Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1998;29:411-4.

23. Muir KW. New experimental and clinical data on the efficacy of pharmacological magnesium infusions in cerebral infarcts. Magnes Res 1998;11:43-56.

24. Muir KW, Lees KR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute stroke. Stroke 1995;26:1183-8.

25. Neglen P, Overfordt P, Eklof B. Peroral magnesium hydroxide therapy and intermittent claudication. Vasa 1985;14:285-8.

26. Christie SB, Conway N, Pearson HE. Observations on the performance of a standard exercise test by claudicants taking gamma-linolenic acid. J Atheroscler Res 1968;8:83-90.

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28. Fiaccadori E, Del Canale S, Coffrini E, et al. Muscle and serum magnesium in pulmonary intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 1988;16:751-60.

29. Skorodin MS, Tenholder MF, Yetter B, et al. Magnesium sulfate in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:496-500.

30. Okayama H, Aikawa T, Okayama M, et al. Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate in bronchial asthma. JAMA 1987;257:1076-8.

31. Leppert J, Aberg H, Levin K, et al. The concentration of magnesium in erythrocytes in female patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon; fluctuation with the time of year. Angiology 1994;45:283-8.

32. Smith WO, Hammarsten JF, Eliel LP. The clinical expression of magnesium deficiency. JAMA 1960;174:77-8.

33. Turlapaty P, Altura BM. Magnesium deficiency produces spasms of coronary arteries; relationship to etiology of sudden death ischemic heart disease. Science 1980;208:198-200.

34. Durlach J. Neuromuscular and phlebothrombotic clinical aspects of primary magnesium deficiency. Z Ernahrungswiss 1975;14:75-83 [in French].

35. Martignoni E, Nappi G, Facchinetti F, Gennazzani AR. Magnesium in gynecological disorders. Gyn Endocrinol 1988;2(Suppl 2):26 [abstract].

36. Benassi L, Barletta FP, Baroncini L, et al. Effectiveness of magnesium pidolate in the prophylactic treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1992;19:176-9.

37. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1990;79:491-4 [in German].

38. Seifert B, Wagler P, Dartsch S, et al. Magnesium—a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea. Zentralbl Gynakol 1989;111:755-60 [in German].

39. Abraham GE, Lubran MM. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2364-6.

40. Sherwood RA, Rocks BF, Stewart A, Saxton RS. Magnesium and the premenstrual syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1986;23:667-70.

41. Nicholas A. Traitement du syndrome pre-menstruel et de la dysmenorrhee par l'ion magnesium. in First International Symposium on Magnesium Deficit in Human Pathology, ed. J Durlach. Paris: Springer-Verlag, 1973, 261-3.

42. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81.

43. Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. J Womens Health 1998;7:1157-65.

44. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

45. Werbach MR. Premenstrual syndrome: magnesium. Int J Alternative Complementary Med 1994;Feb:29 [review].

46. Supakatisant C, Phupong V. Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy-induced leg cramps: a randomised controlled trial. <em>Matern Child Nutr</em> 2012 Aug 22 [Epub ahead of print].

47. Nygaard IH, Valbo A, Pethick SV, Bohmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? <em>Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol</em> 2008;141:23-6.

48. REF:Park H, Parker GL, Boardman CH, et al. A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2011;19:859-63.

49. Park H, Qin R, Smith TJ, Atherton PJ, et al. North Central Cancer Treatment Group N10C2 (Alliance): a double-blind placebo-controlled study of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes. Menopause 2014;Nov 24:[Epub ahead of print].

50. Durlach J. Neuromuscular and phlebothrombotic clinical aspects of primary magnesium deficiency. Z Ernahrungswiss 1975;14:75-83 [in French].

51. Martignoni E, Nappi G, Facchinetti F, Gennazzani AR. Magnesium in gynecological disorders. Gyn Endocrinol 1988;2(Suppl 2):26 [abstract].

52. Benassi L, Barletta FP, Baroncini L, et al. Effectiveness of magnesium pidolate in the prophylactic treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1992;19:176-9.

53. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1990;79:491-4 [in German].

54. Seifert B, Wagler P, Dartsch S, et al. Magnesium—a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea. Zentralbl Gynakol 1989;111:755-60 [in German].

55. Abraham GE, Lubran MM. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2364-6.

56. Sherwood RA, Rocks BF, Stewart A, Saxton RS. Magnesium and the premenstrual syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1986;23:667-70.

57. Nicholas A. Traitement du syndrome pre-menstruel et de la dysmenorrhee par l'ion magnesium. in First International Symposium on Magnesium Deficit in Human Pathology, ed. J Durlach. Paris: Springer-Verlag, 1973, 261-3.

58. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81.

59. Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. J Womens Health 1998;7:1157-65.

60. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

61. Werbach MR. Premenstrual syndrome: magnesium. Int J Alternative Complementary Med 1994;Feb:29 [review].

62. Ozcaliskan Ilkay H, Sahin H, Tanriverdi F, Samur G. Association Between Magnesium Status, Dietary Magnesium Intake, and Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr 2019;38:31–9.

63. Hruby A, Guasch-Ferre M, Bhupathiraju S, et al. Magnesium Intake, Quality of Carbohydrates, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three U.S. Cohorts. Diabetes Care 2017;40:1695–702.

64. Chen S, Jin X, Liu J, et al. Association of Plasma Magnesium with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults. Sci Rep 2017;7:12763.

65. Fang X, Han H, Li M, et al. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2016;8.

66. Kostov K. Effects of Magnesium Deficiency on Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: Focusing on the Processes of Insulin Secretion and Signaling. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20.

67. Barbagallo M, Dominguez L. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes. World J Diabetes 2015;6:1152–7.

68. Kumar P, Bhargava S, Agarwal P, et al. Association of serum magnesium with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:1671–7.

69. Joy S, George T, Siddiqui K. Low magnesium level as an indicator of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with complications. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019;13:1303–7.

70. Zhang Q, Ji L, Zheng H, et al. Low serum phosphate and magnesium levels are associated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018;146:1-7.

71. Gant C, Soedamah-Muthu S, Binnenmars S, et al. Higher Dietary Magnesium Intake and Higher Magnesium Status Are Associated with Lower Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2018;10.

72. Bherwani S, Jibhkate S, Saumya A, et al. Hypomagnesaemia: a modifiable risk factor of diabetic nephropathy. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017;29:79–84.

73. Dibaba D, Xun P, Song Y, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106:921–9.

74. Verma H, Garg R. Effect of magnesium supplementation on type 2 diabetes associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet 2017;30:621–33.

75. ELDerawi W, Naser I, Taleb M, Abutair A. The Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Response among Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Nutrients 2018;11.

76. Talari H, Zakizade M, Soleimani A, et al. Effects of magnesium supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic profiles in diabetic haemodialysis patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2019;121:809–17.

77. Sadeghian M, Azadbakht L, Khalili N, et al. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improved Lipid Profile but Increased Insulin Resistance in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Biol Trace Elem Res 2019.

78. Nadler JL, Buchanan T, Natarajan R, et al. Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis. Hypertension 1993;21:1024-9.

79. Humphries S, Kushner H, Falkner B. Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic Black Americans. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:747-56.

80. Rosolova H, Mayer O Jr, Reaven G. Effect of variations in plasma magnesium concentration on resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3783-5.

81. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

82. Stebbing JB et al. Reactive hypoglycemia and magnesium. Magnesium Bull 1982;2:131-4.

83. Shansky A. Vitamin B3 in the alleviation of hypoglycemia. Drug Cosm Ind 1981;129(4):68-69,104-5.

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86. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-8.

87. Erasmus RT, Olukoga AO, Alanamu RA, et al. Plasma magnesium and retinopathy in black African diabetics. Trop Geogr Med 1989;41:234-7.

88. Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Coata G, et al. Serum and salivary magnesium levels in migraine. Results in a group of juvenile patients. Headache 1992;32:132-5.

89. Baker B. New research approach helps clarify magnesium/migraine link. Family Pract News 1993;Aug 15:16.

90. Barbiroli B, Lodi R, Cortelli P, et al. Low brain free magnesium in migraine and cluster headache: an interictal study by in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy on 86 patients. Cephalalgia 1997;17:254.

91. Mazzotta G, Sarchielli P, Alberti A, Gallai V. Intracellular Mg++ concentration and electromyographical ischemic test in juvenile headache. Cephalalgia 1999;19:802-9.

92. Weaver K. Magnesium and migraine. Headache 1990;30:168 [letter].

93. Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia 1996;16:257-63.

94. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

95. Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine—a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia 1996;16:436-40.

96. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulphate relieves migraine attacks in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels: a pilot study. Clin Sci 1995;89:633-6.

97. Bagis S, Karabiber M, As I, et al. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia? Rheumatol Int 2013;33:167–72.

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99. Russell IJ, Michalek J, Flechas J, et al. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with SuperMalic: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol 1995;22(5):953-7.

100. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate relieves cluster headaches in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels. Headache 1995;35:597-600.

101. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate rapidly alleviates headaches of various types. Headache 1996;36:154-60.

102. Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. Nutr Health 1988;6:69-88.

103. Conradt A. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of gestosis with special reference to magnesium deficiency. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol 1984;188:49-58 [review] [in German].

104. Leela R, Yasodhara P, Ramaraju MBBS, Ramaraju LA. Calcium and magnesium in pregnancy. Nutr Res 1991;11:1231-6.

105. Makrides M, Crowther CA. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000937 [review].

106. Li S, Tian H. Oral low-dose magnesium gluconate preventing pregnancy induced hypertension. Chung Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih 1997;32:613-5 [in Chinese].

107. D'Almeida A, Caretr JP, Anatol A, Prost C. Effects of a combination of evening primrose oil (gamma linolenic acid) and fish oil (eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid) versus magnesium, and versus placebo in preventing pre-eclampsia. Women Health 1992;19:117-31.

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111. Nygaard IH, Valbo A, Pethick SV, Bohmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? <em>Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol</em> 2008;141:23-6.

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116. Handwerker SM, Altura BT, Altura BM. Ionized serum magnesium and potassium levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia. J Reprod Med 1995;40:201-8.

117. Conradt A, Weidinger H, Algayer G. Magnesium deficiency, a possible cause of pre-eclampsia: reduction of frequency of premature rupture of membranes and premature or small-for-date deliveries after magnesium supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 1985;4:321.

118. Boschert S. Milk of magnesia may help ease urinary urge incontinence. Fam Pract News 2003;33:46.

119. Gordon D, Groutz A, Ascher-Landsberg J, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of magnesium hydroxide for treatment of sensory urgency and detrusor instability: preliminary results. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105:667-9.

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121. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Infrared spectroscopy and magnesium content of bone mineral in osteoporotic women. Isr J Med Sci 1981;17:1123-5.

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123. Dimai H-P, Porta S, Wirnsberger G, et al. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2742-8.

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125. Carpenter TO, DeLucia MC, Zhang JH, et al. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:4866-72.

126. Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. J Reprod Med 1990;35:503-7.

127. Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res 1997;10:149-56.

128. Martineau J, Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Lelord G. Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biol Psychiatr 1985;20:467-78.

129. Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, et al. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. II. Pervasive developmental disorder-autism. Magnes Res 2006;19:53-62.

130. Haury VG. Blood serum magnesium in bronchial asthma and its treatment by the administration of magnesium sulfate. J Lab Clin Med 1940;26:340-4.

131. Skobeloff EM, Spivey WH, McNamara RM, Greenspon L. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. JAMA 1989;262:1210-3.

132. Brunner EH, Delabroise AM, Haddad ZH. Effect of parenteral magnesium on pulmonary function, plasma cAMP, and histamine in bronchial asthma. J Asthma 1985;22:3-11.

133. Rolla G, Bucca C, Caria E, et al. Acute effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate on airway obstruction of asthmatic patients. Ann Allergy 1988;61:388-91.

134. Hill JM, Britton J. Effect of intravenous magnesium sulphate on airway calibre and airway reactivity to histamine in asthmatic subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1996;42:629-31.

135. Bernstein WK, Khastgir T, Khastgir A, et al. Lack of effectiveness of magnesium in chronic stable asthma. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in normal subjects and in patients with chronic stable asthma. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:271-6.

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150. Jialal I, Joubert SM. The biochemical profile in Indian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young with retinopathy. Diabetes Metabol 1985;11:262-5.

151. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27:1075-8.

152. Erasmus RT, Olukoga AO, Alanamu RA, et al. Plasma magnesium and retinopathy in black African diabetics. Trop Geogr Med 1989;41:234-7.

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165. REF:Park H, Parker GL, Boardman CH, et al. A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2011;19:859-63.

166. Park H, Qin R, Smith TJ, Atherton PJ, et al. North Central Cancer Treatment Group N10C2 (Alliance): a double-blind placebo-controlled study of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes. Menopause 2014;Nov 24:[Epub ahead of print].

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