About This Condition
Sinus congestion (also called nasal congestion or rhinitis) involves blockage of one or more of the four pairs of sinus passageways in the skull.
The blockage may result from inflammation and swelling of the nasal tissues, obstruction by one of the small bones of the nose (deviated septum), or from secretion of mucus. It may be acute or chronic. Acute sinus congestion is most often caused by the common cold. Sinus congestion caused by the common cold is not discussed here. Chronic sinus congestion often results from environmental irritants such as tobacco smoke, food allergens, inhaled allergens, or foreign bodies in the nose.
Sinus congestion leads to impaired flow of fluids in the sinuses, which predisposes people to bacterial infections that can cause sinusitis. At least two serious disorders have been associated with chronic nasal congestion: chronic lymphocytic leukemia and HIV.1,2 For this reason, chronic nasal congestion lasting three months or more should be evaluated by a medical professional.
Sinus congestion typically causes symptoms of pressure, tenderness, or pain in the area above the eyebrows (frontal sinus) and above the upper, side teeth (maxillary sinus). Other symptoms include nasal stuffiness sometimes accompanied by a thick yellow or green discharge, postnasal drip, bad breath, and an irritating dry cough.
Surgery may be used to unblock the sinuses and drain thick secretions if drug therapy is ineffective or if structural abnormalities are involved.