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Health Condition

Prostatitis

About This Condition

Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. It is a term that encompasses four disorders of the prostate: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, and prostadynia.

Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP), also called chronic abacterial prostatitis (CAP), is the most common form of prostatitis. NBP is usually caused by infectious agents such as fungi, mycoplasma, or viruses.1 Prostadynia (PD), also called chronic pelvic pain syndrome, is a noninfectious form of prostatitis. Although the cause is unknown, it has been proposed that PD may be a neuromuscular condition, causing pain of the pelvic floor muscles.2 Acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) results from a urinary tract infection (usually from E. coli bacteria) that has spread to the prostate. Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is usually the result of a partial blockage of the male urinary tract, such as occurs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Such blockages promote the harboring of bacteria from a previous infection and reduce circulation, thereby preventing both the body’s natural immune mechanisms and medication from getting to the site.

Symptoms

Men with prostatitis may have symptoms including pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen, testicles, and penis; discomfort during ejaculation or urination; or a weak urinary stream with dribbling. Advanced cases may also have fever, chills, frequent urge to urinate, burning urination, blood passed in the urine, and pain in the joints and muscles.

Other Therapies

Health care practitioners may recommend bed rest and plenty of fluids.

References

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2. Zermann DH, Ishigooka M, Doggweiler R, Schmidt RA. Chronic prostatitis: A myofascial pain syndrome? Infect Urol 1999;12:84-8,92.

3. Shoskes DA. Use of the bioflavonoid quercetin in patients with longstanding chronic prostatitis. JANA 1999;2:36-9.

4. Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, Rajfer J. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology 1999; 54:960-3.

5. Izaka K, Yamada M, Kawano T, Suyama T. Gastrointestinal absorption and anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain. Jpn J Pharmacol 1972;22:519-34.

6. Shoskes DA. Use of the bioflavonoid quercetin in patients with longstanding chronic prostatitis. JANA 1999;2:36-9.

7. Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, Rajfer J. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology 1999; 54:960-3.

8. Izaka K, Yamada M, Kawano T, Suyama T. Gastrointestinal absorption and anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain. Jpn J Pharmacol 1972;22:519-34.

9. Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, et al. The effectiveness of dried cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Br J Nutr 2010;104:1181-90.

10. Buck AC, Rees RW, Ebeling L. Treatment of chronic prostatitis and prostatodynia with pollen extract. Br J Urol 1989;64:496-9.

11. Rugendorff EW, Weidner W, Ebeling L, Buck AC. Results of treatment with pollen extract (Cernilton N) in chronic prostatitis and prostatodynia. Br J Urol 1993;71:433-8.

12. Jodai A, Maruta N, Shimomae E, et al. A long-term therapeutic experience with Cernilton in chronic prostatitis. Hinyokika Kiyo 1988;34:561-8 [in Japanese].

13. Suzuki T, Kurokawa K, Mashimo T, et al. Clinical effect of Cernilton in chronic prostatitis. Hinyokika Kiyo 1992;38:489-94 [in Japanese].

14. Ohkoshi M, Kawamura N, Nagakubo I. Clinical evaluation of Cernilton in chronic prostatitis. Jpn J Clin Urol 1967;21:73-6.

15. Duclos AJ, Lee CT, Shoskes DA. Current treatment options in the management of chronic prostatitis. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2007;3:507-12.

16. Elist J. Effects of pollen extract preparation Prostat/Poltit on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study Urology 2006;67:60-3.

17. Rugendorff EW, Weidner W, Ebeling L, Buck AC. Results of treatment with pollen extract (Cernilton N) in chronic prostatitis and prostatodynia. Br J Urol 1993;71:433-8.

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19. Anesini C, Perez C. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;39:119-28.

20. Carani C, Salvioli V, Scuteri A, et al. Urological and sexual evaluation of treatment of benign prostatic disease using Pygeum africanum at high doses. Arch Ital Urol Nefrol Androl 1991;63:341-5 [in Italian].

21. Menchini-Fabris GF, Giorgi P, Andreini F, et al. New perspectives on treatment of prostato-vesicular pathologies with Pygeum Africanum. Arch It Urol 1988;LX:313-22 [in Italian].

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23. Breu W, Hagenlocher M, Redl K, et al. [Anti-inflammatory activity of sabal fruit extracts prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide. In vitro antagonists of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase metabolism]. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:547-51 [in German].

24. Colleen S, Mardh PA, Schytz A. Magnesium and zinc in seminal fluid of healthy males and patients with non-acute prostatitis with and without gonorrhoea. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1975;9:192-7.

25. Fair WR, Parrish RF. Antibacterial substances in prostatic fluid. Prog Clin Biol Res 1981;75A:247-64.

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27. Fair WR, Couch J, Wehner N. Prostatic antibacterial factor. Identity and significance. Urology 1976;7:169-77.

28. Kavanagh JP, Darby C, Costello CB. The response of seven prostatic fluid components to prostatic disease. Int J Androl 1982;5:487-96.

29. Marmar JL, Katz S, Praiss DE, DeBenedictis TJ. Semen zinc levels in infertile and postvasectomy patients and patients with prostatitis. Fertil Steril 1975;26:1057-63.

30. Neal DE Jr, Kaack MB, Fussell EN, Roberts JA. Changes in seminal fluid zinc during experimental prostatitis. Urol Res 1993;21:71-4.

31. Bush IM, Berman E, Nourkayhan S, et al. Zinc and the prostate. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association Chicago, 1974.

32. Ikeuchi T, Iguchi H. Clinical studies on chronic prostatitis and prostatitis-like syndrome (7). Electric acupuncture therapy for intractable cases of chronic prostatitis-like syndrome. Hinyokika Kiyo 1994;40:587-91 [in Japanese].

33. Evans D. Treatment of chronic abacterial prostatitis: A review. Int J STD AIDS 1994;5:157-64 [review].

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35. Lipsky BA. Prostatitis and urinary tract infection in men: what's new; what's true? Am J Med 1999;106:327-34 [review].

36. Wenninger K, Heiman JR, Rothman I, et al. Sickness impact of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and its correlates. J Urol 1996;155:965-8.

37. Berghuis JP, Heiman JR, Rothman I, Berger RE. Psychological and physical factors involved in chronic idiopathic prostatitis. J Psychosom Res 1996;41:313-25.

38. Smart CJ, Jenkins JD, Lloyd RS. The painful prostate. Br J Urol 1976;47:861-9.

39. Zermann DH, Ishigooka M, Doggweiler R, Schmidt RA. Chronic prostatitis: A myofascial pain syndrome? Infect Urol 1999;12:84-8,92.

40. Barbalias GA, Nikiforidis G, Liatsikos EN. Alpha-blockers for the treatment of chronic prostatitis in combination with antibiotics. J Urol 1998;159:883-7.

41. Drach GW. Prostatitis: Man's hidden infection. Urol Clin North Am 1975;2:499-520 [review].

42. Pizzorno JE, Murray MT. A Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1999, 353-4.

43. Lipsky BA. Prostatitis and urinary tract infection in men: what's new; what's true? Am J Med 1999;106:327-34 [review].

44. Yavascaoglu I, Oktay B, Simsek U, Ozyurt M. Role of ejaculation in the treatment of chronic non-bacterial prostatitis. Int J Urol 1999;6:130-4.

45. Pakrashi A, Chatterjee S. Effect of tobacco consumption on the function of male accessory sex glands. Int J Androl 1995;18:232-6.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2018.

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