Exit

Health Condition

Pre- and Post-Surgery Health

About This Condition

Major surgery causes serious stress to the body. The body’s immune system is weakened and gastrointestinal function is changed after major surgery, leaving the body vulnerable to infection and in a state of nutritional insufficiency.1 Steps can be taken using natural approaches to strengthen the body before and after surgery, enhance defenses, prevent complications, and speed recovery.

Other Therapies

Other treatment includes adequate rest, nutrition, fluid intake, and proper care of the surgical wounds.

References

1. O'Flaherty L, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:831-7 [review].

2. Campos FG, Waitzberg DL, Logulo AF, et al. The role of glutamine in nutrition in clinical practice. Arq Gastroenterol 1996;33:86-92 [review, in Portugese].

3. O'Flaherty L, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:831-7 [review].

4. Greig JE, Keast D, Garcia-Webb P, Crawford P. Inter-relationships between glutamine and other biochemical and immunological changes after major vascular surgery. Br J Biomed Sci 1996;53:116-21.

5. Morlion BJ, Stehle P, Wachtler P, et al. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg 1998;227:302-8.

6. O'Riordain MG, De Beaux A, Fearon KC. Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Nutrition 1996;12:S82-4.

7. Jian ZM, Cao JD, Zhu XG, et al. The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999;23:S62-6.

8. Morais AA, Santos JE, Faintuch J. Comparative study of arginine and glutamine supplements in malnourished surgical patients. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 1995;50:276-9 [in Portugese].

9. Evoy D, Lieberman MD, Fahey TJ 3rd, Daly JM. Immunonutrition: the role of arginine. Nutrition 1998;14:611-7 [review].

10. Szabo G, Bahrle S, Batkai S, et al. L-arginine: effect on reperfusion injury after heart transplantation. World J Surg 1998;22:791-7.

11. Shashidharan M, Lin KM, Ternent CA, et al. Influence of arginine dietary supplementation on healing colonic anastomosis in the rat. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:1613-7.

12. Kaleli B, Ozden A, Aybek Z, Bostanci B. The effect of L-arginine and pentoxifylline on postoperative adhesion formation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:377-80.

13. Gerster H. The use of n-3 PUFAs (fish oil) in enteral nutrition. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:3-20 [review].

14. Kollman KA, Lien EL, Vanderhoof JA. Dietary lipids influence intestinal adaptation after massive bowel resection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999;28:41-5.

15. Johnson JA 3d, Griswold JA, Muakkassa FF. Essential fatty acids influence survival in sepsis. J Trauma 1993;35:128-31.

16. Wachtler P, Konig W, Senkal M, et al. Influence of a total parenteral nutrition enriched with omega-3 fatty acids on leukotriene synthesis of peripheral leukocytes and systemic cytokine levels in patients with major surgery. J Trauma 1997;42:191-8.

17. Gianotti L, Braga M, Fortis C, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical trial on perioperative feeding with an arginine-, omega-3 fatty acid-, and RNA-enriched enteral diet: effect on host response and nutritional status. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1999;23:314-20.

18. Norred CL, Zamudio S, Palmer SK. Use of complementary and alternative medicines by surgical patients. AANA J 2000;68:13-8.

19. Murphy JM. Preoperative considerations with herbal medicines. AORN J 1999;69:173-5, 177-8, 180-3.

20. Robb-Nicholson C. By the way, doctor. My surgeon advised me to stop taking gingko biloba before my hip surgery. Can you explain why? Are there any other herbs I should avoid? Harv Womens Health Watch 2000;7:8.

21. Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)—an antiemetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia 1993;48:715-7.

22. Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, et al. Ginger root—a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on the postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia 1990;45:669-71.

23. Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, Choavaratana R. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1998;53:506-10.

24. Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 1995;23:449-52.

25. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:367-71 [review].

26. Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, et al. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol2006;194:95-9.

27. van Iperen CE, Kraaijenhagen RJ, Biesma DH, et al. Iron metabolism and erythropoiesis after surgery. Br J Surg 1998;85:41-5.

28. Berniere J, Dehullu JP, Gall O, Murat I. Intravenous iron in the treatment of postoperative anemia in surgery of the spine in infants and adolescents. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1998;84:319-22 [in French].

29. Ohta A, Ohtsuki M, Uehara M, et al. Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides prevent postgastrectomy anemia and osteopenia in rats. J Nutr 1998;128:485-90.

30. Mainous MR, Deitch EA. Nutrition and infection. Surg Clin North Am 1994;74:659-76 [review].

31. Andrews CM, Lane DW, Bradley JG. Iron pre-load for major joint replacement. Transfus Med 1997;7:281-6.

32. Goodnough LT, Vizmeg K, Sobecks R, et al. Prevalence and classification of anemia in elective orthopedic surgery patients: implications for blood conservation programs. Vox Sang 1992;63:90-5.

33. Guinea JM, Lafuente P, Mendizabal A, et al. Results of preoperative autotransfusion with ferrous ascorbate prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery patients. Sangre (Barc) 1996;41:25-8 [in Spanish].

34. Tasaki T, Ohto H, Motoki R. Pharmacological approaches to reduce perioperative transfusion requirements in the aged. Drugs Aging 1995;6:91-104 [review].

35. Kinross JM, Markar S, Karthikesalingam A, et al. A meta-analysis of probiotic and synbiotic use in elective surgery: does nutrition modulation of the gut microbiome improve clinical outcome? JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2013;37:243–53.

36. Rudolph FB, Van Buren CT. The metabolic effects of enterally administered ribonucleic acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998;1:527-30 [review].

37. Kulkarni AD, Rudolph FB, Van Buren CT. The role of dietary sources of nucleotides in immune function: a review. J Nutr 1994;124:1442S-6S [review].

38. Jyonouchi H, Sun S. An orally supplemented mononucleotide mixture prevents the decrease in T cell-dependent humoral immunity in C57BL/6 mice fed a nucleotide-free diet. J Nutr 1996;126:1586-93.

39. Carver JD. Dietary nucleotides: effects on the immune and gastrointestinal systems. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1999;88:83-8 [review].

40. Carver JD. Dietary nucleotides: cellular immune, intestinal and hepatic system effects. J Nutr 1994;124:144S-8S [review].

41. Cosgrove M. Perinatal and infant nutrition. Nucleotides. Nutrition 1998;14:748-51 [review].

42. Redmond HP, Stapleton PP, Neary P, Bouchier-Hayes D. Immunonutrition: the role of taurine. Nutrition 1998;14:599-604 [review].

43. O'Flaherty L, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:831-7 [review].

44. Aussel C, Coudray-Lucas C, Lasnier E, et al. Alpha-Ketoglutarate uptake in human fibroblasts. Cell Biol Int 1996;20:359-63.

45. Wernerman J, Hammarqvist F, Vinnars E. Alpha-ketoglutarate and postoperative muscle catabolism. Lancet1990;335:701-3.

46. Kjellman UW, Bjork K, Ekroth R, et al. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate to blood cardioplegia improves cardioprotection. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:1625-33.

47. van Iperen CE, Kraaijenhagen RJ, Biesma DH, et al. Iron metabolism and erythropoiesis after surgery. Br J Surg 1998;85:41-5.

48. Berniere J, Dehullu JP, Gall O, Murat I. Intravenous iron in the treatment of postoperative anemia in surgery of the spine in infants and adolescents. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1998;84:319-22 [in French].

49. Ohta A, Ohtsuki M, Uehara M, et al. Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides prevent postgastrectomy anemia and osteopenia in rats. J Nutr 1998;128:485-90.

50. Mainous MR, Deitch EA. Nutrition and infection. Surg Clin North Am 1994;74:659-76 [review].

51. McKenzie RC, Rafferty TS, Beckett GJ. Selenium: an essential element for immune function. Immunol Today 1998;19:342-5 [review].

52. Hughes DA. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:79-84 [review].

53. Lesourd BM. Nutrition and immunity in the elderly: modification of immune responses with nutritional treatments. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:478S-84S [review].

54. Gjorup I, Gjorup T, Andersen B. Serum selenium and zinc concentrations in morbid obesity. Comparison of controls and patients with jejunoileal bypass. Scand J Gastroenterol 1988;23:1250-2.

55. Lehmann C, Egerer K, Weber M, et al. Effect of selenium administration on various laboratory parameters of patients at risk for sepsis syndrome. Med Klin 1997;92:14-6 [in German].

56. Norred CL, Zamudio S, Palmer SK. Use of complementary and alternative medicines by surgical patients. AANA J 2000;68:13-8.

57. Murphy JM. Preoperative considerations with herbal medicines. AORN J 1999;69:173-5, 177-8, 180-3.

58. Robb-Nicholson C. By the way, doctor. My surgeon advised me to stop taking gingko biloba before my hip surgery. Can you explain why? Are there any other herbs I should avoid? Harv Womens Health Watch 2000;7:8.

59. Arora RB, Basu N, Kapoor V, Jain AP. Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (turmeric). Indian J Med Res 1971;59:1289-95.

60. Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG. Evaluation of antiinflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986;24:651-4.

61. Mazzotta MY. Nutrition and wound healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1994;84:456-62 [review].

62. Swartz-Basile DA, Rubin DC, Levin MS. Vitamin A status modulates intestinal adaptation after partial small bowel resection. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:81-8.

63. Ehrlich H, Hunt TK. Effects of cortisone and vitamin A on wound healing. Ann Surg 1968;167:324-8.

64. Hunt TK, Ehrlich HP, Garcia JA, et al. Effect of vitamin A on reversing the inhibitory effect of cortisone on healing of open wounds in animals and man. Ann Surg 1969;170:633-41.

65. Ehrlich HP, Tarver H, Hunt TK. Effects of vitamin A and glucocorticoids upon inflammation and collagen synthesis. Ann Surg 1973;177:222-7.

66. Hunt TK. Vitamin A and wound healing. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:817-21 [review].

67. Vinogradov VV, Tarasov IuA, Tishin VS, et al. Thiamin prevention of the corticosteroid reaction after surgery. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1981;27:11-6 [in Russian].

68. Lettko M, Meuer S. Vitamin B-induced prevention of stress-related immunosuppression. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990;585:513-5.

69. Vinogradov VV, Tarasov IuA, Tishin VS, et al. Thiamin prevention of the corticosteroid reaction after surgery. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1981;27:11-6 [in Russian].

70. Lettko M, Meuer S. Vitamin B-induced prevention of stress-related immunosuppression. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990;585:513-5.

71. Vinogradov VV, Tarasov IuA, Tishin VS, et al. Thiamin prevention of the corticosteroid reaction after surgery. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1981;27:11-6 [in Russian].

72. Lettko M, Meuer S. Vitamin B-induced prevention of stress-related immunosuppression. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990;585:513-5.

73. Zunic J, Stavljenic-Rukavina A, Granic P, et al. Changes in vitamin E concentration after surgery and anesthesia. Coll Antropol 1997;21:327-34.

74. Kawamura T, Ohisa Y, Abe Y, et al. Plasma lipid peroxides in the operation of esophageal cancer. Rinsho Byori 1992;40:881-4 [in Japanese].

75. Hans P, Canivet JL, Pincemail J, et al. Plasma vitamin E, total lipids and myeloperoxidase levels during spinal surgery. A comparison between two anesthetic agents: propofol and isoflurane. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991;35:302-5.

76. Greenwald DP. Zone II flexor tendon repair: effects of vitamins A, E and beta-carotene. J Surg Res 1990;49:98-102.

77. Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, et al. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil 1986;7:309-12.

78. Anastasi J, Steiner M. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on human platelet aggregation. Am J Clin Nutr 1976;29:467 [abstract].

79. Thomas DR. Specific nutritional factors in wound healing. Adv Wound Care 1997;10:40-3 [review].

80. Stotts NA, Whitney JD. Nutritional intake and status of clients in the home with open surgical wounds. J Community Health Nurs 1990;7:77-86.

81. Yamamoto R, Inoue K, Hori T, et al. Clinical evaluation of changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations around pulmonary operation. Nippon Kyobu Geka Gakkai Zasshi 1994;42:1178-83 [in Japanese].

82. Cordova Martinez A, Escanero Marcen JF. Changes in serum trace elements after surgery: value of copper and zinc in predicting post-operative fatigue. J Int Med Res 1992;20:12-9.

83. Senapati A, Slavin BM, Thompson RPH. Zinc depletion and complications of surgery. Clinical Nutrition 1990;9:341-6.

84. Hallbook T, Hedelin H. Pre-operative peroral zinc supplementation. Acta Chir Scand 1978;144:63-6.

85. Harmon D, Ryan M, Kelly A, Bowen M. Acupressure and prevention of nausea and vomiting during and after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:463-7.

86. Harmon D, Gardiner J, Harrison R, Kelly A. Acupressure and the prevention of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopy. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:387-90.

87. Alkaissi A, Stalnert M, Kalman S. Effect and placebo effect of acupressure (P6) on nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999;43:270-4.

88. Gieron C, Wieland B, von der Laage D, Tolksdorf W. Acupressure in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesist 1993;42:221-6 [in German].

89. Ho CM, Hseu SS, Tsai SK, Lee TY. Effect of P-6 acupressure on prevention of nausea and vomiting after epidural morphine for post-cesarean section pain relief. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1996;40:372-5.

90. Fan CF, Tanhui E, Joshi S, et al. Acupressure treatment for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1997;84:821-5.

91. Stein DJ, Birnbach DJ, Danzer BI, et al. Acupressure versus intravenous metoclopramide to prevent nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg 1997;84:342-5.

92. Agarwal A, Pathak A, Gaur A. Acupressure wristbands do not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after urological endoscopic surgery. Can J Anaesth 2000;47:319-24.

93. al-Sadi M, Newman B, Julious SA. Acupuncture in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia 1997;52:658-61.

94. Fassoulaki A, Papilas K, Sarantopoulos C, Zotou M. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces the incidence of vomiting after hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1993;76:1012-4.

95. Ho RT, Jawan B, Fung ST, et al. Electro-acupuncture and postoperative emesis. Anaesthesia 1989;45:327-9.

96. Lee A, Done ML. The use of nonpharmacologic techniques to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 1999;88:1362-9 [review].

97. Schlager A, Offer T, Baldissera I. Laser stimulation of acupuncture point P6 reduces postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Br J Anaesth 1998;81:529-32.

98. O'Flaherty L, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Immunonutrition and surgical practice. Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:831-7 [review].

99. Silk DB, Green CJ. Perioperative nutrition: parenteral versus enteral. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998;1:21-7 [review].

100. Reiland KE. Gastrointestinal surgical patients' outcomes influenced by nutrition. AORN J 2000;71:199-200, 203-4 [review].

101. Petit J, Kaeffer N, Dechelotte P, Oksenhendler G. Respective indications of enteral or parenteral nutrition during pre- and post-operative periods. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1995;14 suppl 2:127-36 [review, in French].

102. Mazzotta MY. Nutrition and wound healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1994;84:456-62 [review].

103. Stotts NA, Whitney JD. Nutritional intake and status of clients in the home with open surgical wounds. J Community Health Nurs 1990;7:77-86.

104. Nakamura K, Moriyama Y, Kariyazono H, et al. Influence of preoperative nutritional state on inflammatory response after surgery. Nutrition 1999;15:834-41.

105. Mazolewski P, Turner JF, Baker M, et al. The impact of nutritional status on the outcome of lung volume reduction surgery: a prospective study. Chest 1999;116:693-6.

106. Montanari M, Violi V, De Bernardinis M, et al. Efficacy of a low-residue diet in the prevention of immuno-nutritional changes caused by the preparation of the colon for surgery. Chir Ital 1988;40:23-8 [in Italian].

107. Rumley TO, Lineaweaver WC, Davis JM. Low residue nutritional supplementation as an adjunct to mechanical preparation for surgical treatment of the colon. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1987;164:345-50.

108. Hessov I, Ljungqvist O. Preoperative oral nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998;1:29-33 [review].

109. Soriano D, Dulitzki M, Keidar N, et al. Early oral feeding after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:1006-8.

110. Singh G, Ram RP, Khanna SK. Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187:142-6.

111. McGowan N. Surgery and smoking. Semin Perioper Nurs 1999;8:146-54 [review].

112. Crews KM, Cobb GW, Seago D, Williams N. Tobacco and dental implants. Gen Dent 1999;47:484-8 [review].

113. Chung F, Mezei G, Tong D. Pre-existing medical conditions as predictors of adverse events in day-case surgery. Br J Anaesth 1999;83:262-70.

114. Chimbira W, Sweeney BP. The effect of smoking on postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia 2000;55:540-4.

Copyright © 2018 Healthnotes, Inc. All rights reserved. www.healthnotes.com

Learn more about Healthnotes, the company.

The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2018.