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Health Condition

Gingivitis

About This Condition

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums (gingivae), usually caused by bacteria.

Periodontitis is a deeper and more serious inflammation of both the gingivae and tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth.

Both common conditions are often progressive and can eventually result in loss of the underlying bone that supports the teeth. After age 30, periodontal disease is responsible for more tooth loss than are dental cavities. Severe periodontitis sometimes requires surgery to repair damaged gum tissue.

Symptoms

Gingivitis is usually painless, although the gums may be red, swollen, and bleed easily with brushing. There can also be a bad taste in the mouth or persistent bad breath (halitosis). In advanced stages of gingivitis, the gums recede, exposing the nerve roots, and the teeth may become loose. This may be an indication of periodontitis.

Other Therapies

Treatment usually involves a regimen of good oral hygiene, including correct tooth brushing, flossing, and professional cleanings. Severe cases might require gum surgery.

References

1. Pack ARC. Folate mouthwash: effects on established gingivitis in periodontal patients. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:619-28.

2. Vogel RI, Fink RA, Frank O, Baker H. The effect of topical application of folic acid on gingival health. J Oral Med 1978;33(1):20-2.

3. Vogel RI, Fink RA, Schneider LC, et al. The effect of folic acid on gingival health. J Periodontol 1976;47:667-8.

4. Pack ARC, Thomson ME. Effects of topical and systemic folic acid supplementation on gingivitis in pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol 1980;7:402-14.

5. Francetti L, Maggiore E, Marchesi A, et al. Oral hygiene in subjects treated with diphenylhydantoin: effects of a professional program. Prev Assist Dent 1991;17(30):40-3 [in Italian].

6. Fitchie JG, Comer RW, Hanes PJ, Reeves GW. The reduction of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in a severely disabled patient: a case report. Compendium 1989;10(6):314.

7. Steinberg SC, Steinberg AD. Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth control in severely retarded children. J Periodontol 1982;53(7):429-33.

8. Drew HJ, Vogel RI, Molofsky W, et al. Effect of folate on phenytoin hyperplasia. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:350-6.

9. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA, Tuovinen VJ, et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1993;89:51-9.

10. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar N, Buzina R, Bacic M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:333-41.

11. Dzink JL, Socransky SS. Comparative in vitro activity of sanguinarine against oral microbial isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985;27(4):663-5.

12. Hannah JJ, Johnson JD, Kuftinec MM. Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;96:199-207.

13. Harper DS, Mueller LJ, Fine JB, et al. Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use. J Periodontol 1990;61(6):352-8.

14. Mauriello SM, Bader JD. Six-month effects of a sanguinarine dentifrice on plaque and gingivitis. J Periodontol 1988;59(4):238-43.

15. Dzink JL, Socransky SS. Comparative in vitro activity of sanguinarine against oral microbial isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985;27(4):663-5.

16. Hannah JJ, Johnson JD, Kuftinec MM. Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;96:199-207.

17. Harper DS, Mueller LJ, Fine JB, et al. Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use. J Periodontol 1990;61(6):352-8.

18. Mauriello SM, Bader JD. Six-month effects of a sanguinarine dentifrice on plaque and gingivitis. J Periodontol 1988;59(4):238-43.

19. Nakamura R, Littarru GP, Folkers K. Deficiency of coenzyme Q in gingiva of patients with periodontal disease. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1973;43:84-92.

20. Wilkinson EG, Arnold RM, Folkers K. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. VI. Adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease with coenzyme Q10. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976;14:715-9.

21. Hanioka T, Tanaka M, Ojima M, et al. Effect of topical application of coenzyme Q10 on adult periodontitis. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15(Suppl):S241-8.

22. Chatterjee A, Kandwal A, Singh N, Singh A. Evaluation of Co-Q10 anti-gingivitis effect on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2012;16:539-42.

23. Moseley R, Waddington RJ, Embery G. Hyaluronan and its potential role in periodontal healing. Dent Update 2002;29:144-8 [review].

24. Pistorius A, Martin M, Willershausen B, Rockmann P. The clinical application of hyaluronic acid in gingivitis therapy. Quintessence Int 2005;36:531-8.

25. Jentsch H, Pomowski R, Kundt G, Gocke R. Treatment of gingivitis with hyaluronan. J Clin Periodontol 2003;30:159-64.

26. Xu Y, Hofling K, Fimmers R, et al. Clinical and microbiological effects of topical subgingival application of hyaluronic acid gel adjunctive to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2004;75:1114-8.

27. Serfaty R, Itic J. Comparative trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dent 1988;1:A34-7.

28. Yamnkell S, Emling RC. Two-month evaluation of Parodontax dentifrice. J Clin Dentistry 1988;1:A41.

29. Pai MR, Acharya LD, Udupa N. Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel—a 6-week clinical study. J Ethnopharmacol2004;90:99-103.

30. Pai MR, Acharya LD, Udupa N. The effect of two different dental gels and a mouthwash on plaque and gingival scores: a six-week clinical study. Int Dent J 2004;54:219-23.

31. Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, et al. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013;40:1025–35.

32. Ince G, Gursoy H, Ipci SD, et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of lozenges containing Lactobacillus reuteri as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2015;86:746–54.

33. Kimbrough C, Chun M, dela Roca G, Lau BH. PYCNOGENOL chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation. Phytomedicine 2002;9:410-3.

34. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA, Tuovinen VJ, et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1993;89:51-9.

35. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar N, Buzina R, Bacic M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:333-41.

36. Woolfe SN, Kenney EB, Hume WR, Carranza FA Jr. Relationship of ascorbic acid levels of blood and gingival tissue with response to periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:159-65.

37. Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, et al. The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1986;57:472-9.

38. El-Ashiry GM, Ringsdorf WM, Cheraskin E. Local and systemic influences in periodontal disease. II. Effect of prophylaxis and natural versus synthetic vitamin C upon gingivitis. J Periodontol 1964;35:250-9.

39. Carvel I, Halperin V. Therapeutic effect of water soluble bioflavonoids in gingival inflammatory conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1961;14:847-55.

40. Singh N, Chander Narula S, al. Vitamin E supplementation, superoxide dismutase status, and outcome of scaling and root planing in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol 2014;85:242–9.

41. Krook L, Lutwak L, Whalen JP, et al. Human periodontal disease. Morphology and response calcium therapy. Cornell Vet 1972;62:32-53.

42. Uhrbom E, Jacobson L. Calcium and periodontitis: a clinical effect of calcium medication. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:230-41.

43. Serfaty R, Itic J. Comparative trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dent 1988;1:A34-7.

44. Yamnkell S, Emling RC. Two-month evaluation of Parodontax dentifrice. J Clin Dentistry 1988;1:A41.

45. Serfaty R, Itic J. Comparative trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dent 1988;1:A34-7.

46. Yamnkell S, Emling RC. Two-month evaluation of Parodontax dentifrice. J Clin Dentistry 1988;1:A41.

47. Vaananen MK, Markkanen HA, Tuovinen VJ, et al. Periodontal health related to plasma ascorbic acid. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1993;89:51-9.

48. Aurer-Kozelj J, Kralj-Klobucar N, Buzina R, Bacic M. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on periodontal tissue ultrastructure in subjects with progressive periodontitis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982;52:333-41.

49. Woolfe SN, Kenney EB, Hume WR, Carranza FA Jr. Relationship of ascorbic acid levels of blood and gingival tissue with response to periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:159-65.

50. Vogel RI, Lamster IB, Wechsler SA, et al. The effects of megadoses of ascorbic acid on PMN chemotaxis and experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1986;57:472-9.

51. El-Ashiry GM, Ringsdorf WM, Cheraskin E. Local and systemic influences in periodontal disease. II. Effect of prophylaxis and natural versus synthetic vitamin C upon gingivitis. J Periodontol 1964;35:250-9.

52. Carvel I, Halperin V. Therapeutic effect of water soluble bioflavonoids in gingival inflammatory conditions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1961;14:847-55.

53. Pack ARC. Folate mouthwash: effects on established gingivitis in periodontal patients. J Clin Periodontol 1984;11:619-28.

54. Vogel RI, Fink RA, Frank O, Baker H. The effect of topical application of folic acid on gingival health. J Oral Med 1978;33(1):20-2.

55. Vogel RI, Fink RA, Schneider LC, et al. The effect of folic acid on gingival health. J Periodontol 1976;47:667-8.

56. Pack ARC, Thomson ME. Effects of topical and systemic folic acid supplementation on gingivitis in pregnancy. J Clin Periodontol 1980;7:402-14.

57. Francetti L, Maggiore E, Marchesi A, et al. Oral hygiene in subjects treated with diphenylhydantoin: effects of a professional program. Prev Assist Dent 1991;17(30):40-3 [in Italian].

58. Fitchie JG, Comer RW, Hanes PJ, Reeves GW. The reduction of phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in a severely disabled patient: a case report. Compendium 1989;10(6):314.

59. Steinberg SC, Steinberg AD. Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth control in severely retarded children. J Periodontol 1982;53(7):429-33.

60. Drew HJ, Vogel RI, Molofsky W, et al. Effect of folate on phenytoin hyperplasia. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:350-6.

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The information presented by Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2018.

Drugs used to treat GINGIVITIS. Select drug name to view medication information and pricing